PRAEPARATIO EVANGELICA

by Eusebius of Caesarea (312 AD)

transl. by E.H. Gifford (1903) publ. as Preparation for the Gospel

 

        The Praeparatio Evangelica is, in my opinion, one of the most important works for any student of Biblical history. On this page I will provide its Table of Contents along with a link to the complete text which is most generously provided by the tertullian.org website.

        For many years I have tried to obtain a copy of it, but it is not available in publication. Some copies are occasionally available through rare-book stores, but at very high cost. Now that I have located the text online, I want to share its location with you. The online text is available at www.tertullian.org/fathers/eusebius_pe_00_intro.htm. The Praeparatio consists of 15 books, each of which prints out to varying lengths, from 15 pages to 37 pages, with text size at about nine points which is very small print. The total printout is about 332 pages. If you increase the text size to match the table of contents listings, the total will be about 853 pages.

        The Praeparatio Evangelica is the largest part of a work by Eusebius, of which the remainder is called the Demonstratio Evangelica,  which is currently available in print as The Proof of the Gospel, 508 pages, edited and translated by W.J. Ferrar (1920).

        Most Bible students are familiar with works of Eusebius published in the large multi-volume series of Nicene Fathers. Those popular works are Eusebius' Church History, the Life of Constantine the Great, and the Oration in Praise of Constantine.

        Bible students of today seldom get a perspective of the historical setting, culture, values, concerns, and actual societal conditions of ancient times. We can hardly understand what speakers and writers really meant unless we understand how the hearers were understanding the messages. Orators were speaking in language and idiom which would communicate to hearers whatever the orator wanted them to understand. If you will scan the Table of Contents below, you will likely become enthralled with the subjects about which Eusebius writes. The situation at the time of Eusebius was early 300's AD; Christians had been persecuted terribly by Roman Emperors for more than two centuries. Constantine was Emperor from 306AD until 337AD. He ended the persecutions of Christians by the previous Emperor Diocletian, and in 313 issued an Edict proclaiming religious toleration. Suddenly the Christians held a favored status which they had never known. Christianity became the state-favored religion, and many of the powerful Edomite Jewish majority in Rome turned to Christianity where they would, over future years, help to direct its course according to their own Pagan preferences, and a hierarchical system of priests and bishops. At the time of Eusebius, there were some critics of Christianity, perhaps the most important one: Porphyry, to whom Eusebius felt compelled to answer. Much of Eusebius' work is apologetic (theological term for "defense of") in nature.

        For us today, one of the greatest values of Eusebius' works was his method of quoting various writings whose original works have been long lost from history. There are many writers for whom we have only Eusebius quotations, and fortunately, many of his excerpts are quite lengthy. We must keep in mind that he had many ancient writings available which no longer exist. Eusebius, Josephus, and Philo are so very important to us because they have preserved materials of inestimable value.

        This is the first time I have had access to his Praeparatio Evangelica, and I have hardly gotten into it, but have already found exciting tidbits. In Book NINE, chapter 27, Eusebius is quoting a Greek historian, Alexander Polyhistor (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Polyhistor), who writes that Moses was the first to teach the Hebrew people "letters," a writing system that was then adopted by the Phoenicians, which later evolved into the Greek language. I have contended for years that the Israelites in Egypt knew and used the language known as Phoenician, and that if Moses put the pentateuch into writing it was in Phoenician language and script. When the Greek Septuagint was compiled, at the request of Ptolemy Philadelphus, in 285BC, it took very little effort to convert the Phoenician pentateuch into the Greek language which was a natural evolvement from Phoenician. The later square letter Herodian script, used for modern Hebrew, was not yet invented, so Moses could not have written that so-called Hebrew script.

        Eusebius does not make any distinction between those known to him as "Jews," in his day, and the ancient Hebrews. He doesn't seem to recognize that the Edomites had usurped the name while the true Israelites had followed Christ to become Christians. Neither did the Christian churches, through subsequent centuries unto our own day, make any distinction between the two races; a distinction which Jesus had made explicitly clear in John 8:44 when He confronted the Edomite Jews at the Temple to tell them God was not their father, but they were children of the devil. Since early Christianity missed that clear indication, given by Jesus, our church has wallowed in confusion and darkness while Christ's enemy race has persecuted the true Israelite tribes who settled northern Europe and Britain, and who still use their ancient tribal emblems to this day. Certainly, God must have permitted or even promoted this confusion of races in order to play out the pageant of His design; otherwise, our people would have stood boldly against our persecutors instead of being submissive sheep.

        Following is the Table of Contents of Eusebius Praeparatio Evangelica, printed on this single page for your convenience. The complete text of the work is available at:

www.tertullian.org/fathers/eusebius_pe_00_intro.htm

 

BOOK ONE

I. What the treatise on the Gospel promises p 1 a

II. The charges usually brought against us by those who try to slander our doctrines p 4 d

III. That we did not adopt the sentiments of the word of salvation without inquiry p 6 b

IV. Our adoption of belief in the greatest blessings is not uncritical as to time p 9 d

V. We did not forsake the superstitious errors of our fathers without sound reason p 14 b

VI. Primitive theology of Phoenicians and Egyptians p 17 b

VII. Character of the cosmogony of the Greeks p 19 a

VIII. Philosophers' opinions concerning the system of the universe p 22 b

IX. The ancients worshipped no other gods than the celestial luminaries, knowing nothing of the God of the universe, nor even of the erection of carved images, nor of daemons  p 27 b The stories about the gods among other nations are of later introduction p 30 d

X. Theology of the Phoenicians p 33 b

 

BOOK TWO

I. Epitome of Egyptian theology, and how it was transmitted to the Greeks; and that we have had good reason for abandoning it all p. 45 a That the theology current among the Greeks is of later introduction p. 52 b

II. Epitome of the mythological tales among the Greeks concerning their gods and heroes p. 52 d

III. Of the secret initiations and cryptic mysteries of their polytheistic delusion p. 61 c

IV. By what considerations we were led to withdraw from the opinions of the Greeks concerning the gods p. 67 d

V. Summary of the preceding arguments p. 69 b

VI. That what they call the temples of their gods are the tombs of dead men p. 71 a The opinion of the ancients concerning the gods p. 73 b Of the physical and forsooth more venerable theology of the Greeks p. 74 a

VII. What Plato thought of the theology of the ancients p. 75 d

VIII. Of the theology of the Romans p. 78 a

 

BOOK THREE

I. The physical theology of the Greeks p 83 c

II. The same subject p 86 d

III. The allegorical theology of the Egyptians p 88 a

IV. Further consideration of the physical system of the Egyptians, and that they transferred the whole reference of their allegorical theory solely to the visible celestial bodies, and to water and fire and the other elements of the cosmos p 92 b

V. That this system also was wholly condemnable p 95 a

VI. That we had good reason for withdrawing from their more physical theory of the gods, and preferring the only true theology p 96 b

VII. The systems of causation which the more recent philosophers interwove with the legends concerning the gods p 97 d

VIII. The erection of carved images in old times p 99 b

IX. Further consideration of the allegorical theology of the Greeks and Egyptians p 100a

X. Confutation and overthrow of their forced explanation p 103d

XI. Strong confutation of the Greek doctrines on this point p 108 b

XII. Of the image at Elephantine p 116 b

XIII. Of the ox that is sacrificed to the sun in Heliopolis p 117 c

XIV. That their gods, by ratifying the legendary narratives concerning gods by their own oracles, are convicted of contradicting the philosophers p 123 a

XV. That they also by their oracles confirm the theories of the philosophers by allegories opposed to the legends about themselves p 125 b

XVI. That it is a natural impossibility for the parts of the cosmos or the divine powers to be dragged down by magical incantations and so to give oracular predictions to the inquirers p 126 b

XVII. That all such effects are due to daemonic action p 127 a

 

BOOK FOUR

I. Preface concerning the oracles in various cities, and the most celebrated responses by the extraordinary manifestations of daemons, and our reason for disregarding them  p. 129 d

II. That it is easy for any who will to prove the promise of the oracles to be the deceit and knavery of human impostors p. 133 a

III. Extract from Diogenianus, that their soothsaying is inconsistent and full of falsehood, and their prediction useless and mischievous p. 136 d

IV. That from these great evils we were delivered by the evangelic teaching of our Saviour p. 140 a

V. The division of Greek theology p. 141 a

VI. That we confirm the testimonies used in our arguments not by our own assertions, but by our quotations from the Greeks p. 142 d Concerning the secrets of the oracles, from quotations of the Greeks p. 143 a

VII. Extract from Porphyry on the oracles. His oath of the truth of his statements. p. 143 c

VIII. That his intended statements must not be published to all p. 144 b

IX. How the worship of the gods by sacrifice is prescribed by Apollo p. 145 a

X. That they who delight in animal sacrifices cannot be gods p. 147 d

XI. That none of the fruits of the earth may be offered to the supreme God either as incense or sacrifice p. 149 b

XII. Not even to the divine powers is it right to offer any of the fruits of the earth either as incense or sacrifice p. 149 d

XIII. Further concerning the impropriety of offering the fruits of the earth to the supreme God p. 150 b

XIV. To offer animals to the gods is unlawful and injurious and unjust and unholy, and subject to execration p.151 a

XV. That their offerings are made to daemons and not to gods p. 153 c

XVI. Porphyry on human sacrifice in old time p. 155 b

XVII. That after teaching of Gospel the old custom of human sacrifice was abolished p.163 d The heathen theology was all concerned with evil daemons p.164 b

XVIII. It is wrong to sacrifice to evil daemons p. 166 b

XIX. How we ought to be devoted to the supreme God p. 166 d

XX. How Apollo enjoins sacrifice to the evil daemon  p. 168 b

XXI. None other than our Lord and Saviour ever delivered the whole human race from the deceit of daemons p. 169 c

XXII. The manner of daemoniacal activity p. 171 a

XXIII. Of the evil daemons and the character of their rulers p. 174 b

 

BOOK FIVE

I. Further proof that the prophetic and oracular shrines among the heathen belonged to evil daemons, and how they have all been destroyed and have failed since our Saviour's teaching in the Gospel p 178 b

II. The manner of the daemoniacal operation p 181 a

III. That the superstition of the Greeks concerning the gods consisted of many divisions and various opinions p 182 e

IV. That the prophetic and oracular shrines among the heathen belonged to evil daemons p 184 a

V. That the mythical narratives related concerning gods contain covert histories of daemons p 187 a

VI. That their so-called good daemons are agents of death  p 190 a

VII. That they minister also to amorous pleasures; and the kind of pleasures in which they severally delight  p 191 b

VIII. That they are drawn down by incantations, and compelled against their will to serve the designs of men  p 193 a

IX. That they cannot withdraw of their own accord  p 195 b

X. The kind of methods by which their wonderful gods are subjected to the impostors  p 197 d

XI. That the daemons whom men have supposed to be gods taught them their own curious arts  p 199 d

XII. That they themselves taught men how to array their images for magical rites  p 200 b

XIII. That they showed the proper forms of their own statues  p 201 a

XIV. That they encourage the practice of magic  p 202 a

XV. That they love the lifeless blocks  p 203 c

XVI. Of the oracles that have failed  p 304 d

XVII. That the daemons whom they worship as gods actually die  p 205 d

XVIII. Of the oracles mentioned among the Greeks of old times  p 208 b

XIX. Apollo charged with commanding twice seven boys and maidens to be sent out by the Athenians to the Cretans to be sacrificed  p 209 c

XX. How Apollo has been the cause of death to many by the ambiguity of his responses  p 210 b

XXI. How again by an ambiguous response he caused Croesus to lose his own kingdom  p 212 c

XXII. How they used to mislead inquirers by deluding them through the responses  p 213 d

XXIII. That by their darkness and obscurity they concealed their own ignorance  p 214 d

XXIV. That, being unable to give any help in the misfortunes of war, they used to quibble and deceive their suppliants by ambiguous responses  p 216 b

XXV. The answers to the Lacedaemonians  p 219 a

XXVI. The like to the people of Cnidos   p 220 b

XXVII. How they incited those who consulted them to war against each other  p 221 b

XXVIII. That the treatment of Lycurgus the law-giver of the Lacedaemonians was not worthy of a god  p 222 d

XXIX. That they failed to give answers about matters of importance  p 224 c

XXX. That, in advising men what to do, they were guided by ordinary human reasonings  p 225 b

XXXI. That their recommendations were for the most part unphilosophical  p 225 c

XXXII. That they used to take part with the wrongdoers  p 226 d

XXXIII. That in accord with opinions of the multitude they injudiciously belauded the poets, who had displayed nothing worthy of the philosophical life  p 227 a

XXXIV. That they exhorted men to glorify pugilists and athletes with honours equal to those of the gods  p 230 a

XXXV. That they used to flatter tyrants  p 233 a

XXXVI. That they bade men worship lifeless matter  p 233 d

 

BOOK SIX

I. The seeming prophecies of the daemons in the oracles are conjectures from the course of the stars, like those made by men.  p. 236 d

II. They destroy our free will by asserting that our purposes are set in motion by Fate p. 238 b

III. They were not able even to defend their own consecrated shrines when struck by lightning  p. 238 d

IV. They say that the decrees of Fate may be annulled by magic  p. 240 d

V. They utter lying prophecies  p. 241 c

VI. Refutation of the argument in defence of Fate  p. 242 a

VII. How their philosophers refuted the opinions even of their gods concerning Fate by truer reasoning. From Oenomaus  p. 255 b

VIII. On the same subject. From Diogenianus  p. 262 a

IX. On the same subject. From Alexander Aphrodisiensis  p. 268 a

X. How the argument for Fate is refuted from Mathematical science. From Bardesanes  p. 273 b

XI. How refuted also from the interpretation and testimony of the Divine Scriptures. From Origen  p. 281 a

 

BOOK SEVEN

I. Concerning the mode of life of original Hebrews, and good reasons for our preferring their divine Scriptures to the doctrines of our forefathers  p. 298 d

II. Recapitulation of the theology of other nations, and its evil effects on their mode of life  p. 299 b

III. Exposition of the character of the Hebrews, and their modes of thought concerning the Maker and Framer of the Universe  p. 301 b

IV. Their opinions concerning the immortality of the soul, and the substance of the body  p. 302 b

V. How for their piety they were rewarded with the recorded theophanies and oracles  p. 303 d

VI. That apart from Judaism before the time of Moses they were illustrious for piety  p. 304 b

VII. That Moses himself has recorded in his own writings the lives of those Hebrews who lived before his time  p. 305 a

VIII. That we showed good judgment and wise consideration in accepting their history : also a brief survey, according to the authors quoted, of the lives of the men beloved of God, both those before the flood and those who afterwards continued till the generation of Moses  p. 306 b

IX. Of the doctrinal theories of the Hebrews  p. 313 b

X. Of general Providence, and the constitution and construction of the world  p. 314 a

XI. The opinions of the Hebrews concerning God as the First Cause of the Universe  p. 317 c

XII. On the theological doctrine of the Second Cause  p. 320 c

XIII. Philo concerning the Second Cause  p. 322 d

XIV. Aristobulus on the same  p. 324 a

XV. On the constitution of rational creatures  p. 324 c

XVI. On the adverse powers  p. 328 a

XVII. On the nature of man  p. 330 b

XVIII. Philo on the soul  p. 331 b

XIX. That matter is not uncreated  p. 333 c

XX. On the same subject from Origen's Commentaries on Genesis   p. 334 d

XXI. Philo on the same  p. 336 b

XXII. That matter is not uncreated, nor the cause of evil  p. 337 b

 

BOOK EIGHT

I. On the religious polity of Moses  p. 348 a

II. Aristeas on the translation of the Jewish Scriptures  p. 350 a

III. Letter of Demetrius Phalereus to Ptolemy, King of Egypt  p. 351 a

IV. Letter of King Ptolemy, to Eleazar the High Priest of the Jews  p. 352 b

V. Letter of Eleazar the High Priest to King Ptolemy  p. 353 b

VI. Philo on the journey of the Israelites out of Egypt  p. 355 c

VII. The same concerning the religious polity of Moses  p. 357 d

VIII. Josephus on the polity of Moses  p. 361 c

IX. Eleazar the High Priest's sketch of the thought allegorically expressed in the sacred laws. From the writings of Aristeas  p. 370 c

X. Aristobulus on the mention of limbs as belonging to God  p. 376 a

XI. Philo on the virtuous life of those Jews who of old time studied philosophy, from his Apology for the Jews   p. 379 a

XII. On the same, from the treatise That every good man is free   p. 381 b

XIII. Philo concerning God, and that the earth was created  p. 384 d

XIV. The same author on The government of the world by God's Providence   p. 386 a

 

BOOK NINE

I. The Greek historians who mentioned the Jewish nation  p. 403 b

II. Theophrastus concerning the Jews, from Porphyry On Abstinence from Animal Food, Bk. i  p. 404 a

III. Porphyry on the illustrious philosophy of the Jews in ancient times  p. 404 c

IV. Hecataeus concerning the Jews  p. 408 a

V. Clearchus on the same, from Bk. i, On Sleep p. 409 b

VI. Clement, Strom. i, concerning those who have mentioned the Jewish nation.  p. 410 b

VII. Numenius the Pythagorean philosopher concerning the Jews, from Bk. i, On the Good   p. 411 b

VIII. The same concerning Moses and the Jews, from Bk. iii, On the Good   p. 411 d

IX. Choerilus the poet concerning the Jews  p. 412 a

X. Oracles of Apollo concerning the Hebrews, from the works of our contemporary Porphyry  p. 412 d

XI. The foreign historians who mentioned the Flood described by Moses, from Josephus, Antiquities, Bk. i  p. 414 a

XII. Concerning the Flood, from the writings of Abydenus  p. 414 d

XIII. The long life of the ancients mentioned by many authors, from Josephus, Antiquities   p. 415 b

XIV. On the building of the Tower, from Abydenus  p. 416 a

XV. Mention of the same by many others, from Josephus, Antiquities p. 416 d

XVI. On Abraham the forefather of all the Hebrews, from the same  p. 417 a

XVII. Eupolemus concerning Abraham, from the work of Alexander Polyhistor On the Jews p. 418 c

XVIII. Artapanus on the same, from the same work of Polyhistor  p. 420 a

XIX. Molon on the same, from the same work  p. 420 d

XX. Philo on the same  p. 421 c

XXI. Demetrius concerning Jacob  p. 422 d

XXII. Theodotus concerning the same  p. 426 b

XXIII. Artapanus concerning Joseph  p. 429 b

XXIV. Philo concerning Joseph  p. 430 b

XXV. Aristeas concerning Job  p. 430 d

XXVI. Eupolemus concerning Moses  p. 431 c

XXVII. Artapanus concerning the same  p. 431 d

XXVIII. Ezekiel concerning the same    p. 436 d

XXIX. Demetrius concerning the same  p 439 b

XXX. Eupolemus concerning David and Solomon and Jerusalem  p. 447 a

XXXI. Letter of Solomon to Vaphres, King of Egypt  p. 448 a

XXXII. Letter of Vaphres to King Solomon  p. 448 b

XXXIII. Letter of Solomon to Suron (Hiram), King of Phoenicia  p. 448 d

XXXIV. Letter of Suron to Solomon  p. 449 b

XXXV. Timochares concerning Jerusalem  p. 452 b

XXXVI. The Author of The Metrical Survey of Syria on the same  p. 452 d

XXXVII. Philo concerning the waters of Jerusalem  p. 452 d

XXXVIII. Aristeas concerning the same  p. 453 c

XXXIX. Eupolemus concerning the prophet Jeremiah  p. 454 b

XL. Berossus on the Captivity of the Jews by Nabuchodonosor  p. 455 b

XLI. Abydenus concerning Nabuchodonosor  p. 456 d

XLII. Josephus concerning the authors who have mentioned the Jewish nation  p. 458 b

 

BOOK TEN

I. How the serious branches of learning passed from Barbarians to Greeks: also concerning the antiquity of the Hebrews  p. 460 a

II. Of the plagiarism of the Greek writers, from Clement  p. 461 d

III. That the Greeks were plagiarists. From Porphyry, The Lecture on Literature, Bk. i p. 464 a

IV. That, not unreasonably, we have preferred the theology of the Hebrews to the Greek philosophy  p. 468 d

V. That in all things the Greeks have profited by the Barbarians  p. 473 d

VI. On the same subject, from Clement  p. 475 b

VII. On the same subject, from Josephus  p. 477 a  

VIII. Diodorus, the author of the Bibliotheca, on the same subject  p. 480 a

IX. On the antiquity of Moses and the Hebrew Prophets  p. 483 b

X. From Africanus  p. 487 d

XI. From Tatian  p. 491 c

XII. From Clement  p. 496 d

XIII. From Josephus  p. 500 c

XIV. That the times of the Greek Philosophers are more recent than the whole history of the Hebrews  p. 502 c

 

BOOK ELEVEN

I. How the philosophy of Plato followed that of the Hebrews in the most essential points  p. 508 d

II. Atticus on the threefold division, of Plato's philosophy  p. 509 b

III. Aristocles on the philosophy of Plato  p. 510 b

IV. On the ethical doctrines of the Hebrews  p. 511 d

V. On the logical method of the Hebrews  p. 513 a

VI. On the correctness of Hebrew names  p. 514 d

VII. On the natural philosophy of the Hebrews  p. 521 a

VIII. On the philosophy of the intelligible world  p. 523 b

IX. Moses and Plato on true being  p. 523 d

X. Extract from Numenius, the Pythagorean, Concerning the good, Bk. ii  p. 525 c

XI. From Plutarch's treatise entitled On the Εἶ at Delphi   p. 527 d

XII. That the divine nature is ineffable  p. 529 d

XIII. That God is One only  p. 530 c

XIV. On the Second Cause  p. 531 d

XV. Philo on the Second Cause  p. 533 b

XVI. Plato on the Second Cause  p. 534 b

XVII. Plotinus on the same  p. 535 b

XVIII. Numenius on the Second Cause  p. 536 d

XIX. Amelius on the theology of our Evangelist John  p. 540 b

XX. On the three primary Hypostases  p. 541 b

XXI. On the essence of the good  p. 542 a

XXII. Numenius on the good  p. 543 b

XXIII. On the Ideas in Plato  p. 545 a

XXIV. Philo on the Ideas in Moses  p. 546 d

XXV. Clement on the same  p. 548 d

XXVI. The Hebrews and Plato on the adverse powers  p. 549 c

XXVII. The Hebrews and Plato on the immortality of the soul.  p. 550 c

XXVIII. Porphyry on the same  p. 554 b

XXIX. That the world is created  p. 557 c

XXX. On the luminaries in heaven  p. 558 b

XXXI. That all the works of God are good  p. 558 d

XXXII. On the alteration and change of the world  p. 559 a

XXXIII. On the return of the dead to life, from the same  p. 561 b

XXXIV. Again concerning the end of the world  p. 562 a

XXXV. That Plato records that dead have been raised in accordance with the statements of the Hebrews  p. 562 d

XXXVI. Plutarch on the like matter  p. 563 d

XXXVII. That Plato describes the so-called celestial earth in like manner as the Hebrews  p. 564 d

XXXVIII. That Plato agrees with the Hebrews in believing that there will be the judgement after death  p. 567 b

 

BOOK TWELVE

I. That the Hebrews, according to Plato, were right in imparting to beginners the belief in their instructions in a simple form because of their incapacity  p. 573 b

II. That faith, according even to Plato, is the greatest of virtues  p. 574 b

III. That we ought to believe what is said concerning the soul, and other statements concerning things of this kind. From eleventh Book of The Laws p. 575 b

IV. That it will be necessary to deliver the first introductory lessons to children in the form of fables. From the second Book of The Republic   p. 575 d

V. That no hurtful fables must be recited to children, but only those that are beneficial  p. 576 b

VI. That Plato accepted the Faith not only in word, but also confessed that with true disposition of mind he believed and was persuaded of these things which we also believe  p. 577 b

VII. That it would not be right to publish the solemn doctrines of the truth to all  p. 581 a

VIII. What kind of rulers Plato says should be appointed: simple and illiterate men, if only they were well ordered in moral character. From the sixth Book of The Laws   p. 581 c

IX. That one should decline offices. From the first Book of The Republic   p. 582 c

X. On Plato's idea of Justice  p. 583 a

XI. On the Paradise described by Moses  p. 584 c

XII. How the woman is said to have been taken out of the man  p. 585 b

XIII. On the mode of life of mankind at first  p. 586 a

XIV. That they associated even with irrational animals  p. 586 d

XV. How they mention the Flood  p. 587 b

XVI. That the course of doctrine rightly begins with things divine and ends with things human. From Plato's first Book of The Laws p. 588 d

XVII. That it is good to train children from a still early age in habits of religion  p. 590 c

XVIII. That we should regard as education only that which leads to virtue, not that which leads to money-making or any pursuit for earning a livelihood  p. 591 b

XIX. That Plato agreed with the Hebrews in thinking that this world is an image of one more divine  p. 592 d

XX. That the young should be prepared for the acquirement of virtue by learning proper hymns and odes. From the second Book of The Laws   p. 594 a

XXI. What kind of thoughts the odes should contain  p. 594 d

XXII. That it is not every one that can compose the proper odes and songs, but either God alone, or some godlike man  p. 596 b

XXIII. Concerning those who are capable of judging the odes composed according to the mind of God  p. 596 d

XXIV. That even in banquets the odes should be adopted for laws as it Were of the banquet  p. 597 d

XXV. That drinking of wine is not to be permitted to all  p. 598 c

XXVI. That Plato was not ignorant that his enactments were in use among certain Barbarians  p. 599 d

XXVII. That our warfare is against ourselves and our inward passions  p. 600 b

XXVIII That it is not the body but the soul that is the cause of our evil deeds  p. 601 d

XXIX. Of the pure philosopher. From the Theaetetus   p. 602 b

XXX. Of all the sophistry in man  p. 606 d

XXXI. That it will be necessary sometimes to use falsehood as a remedy for the benefit of those who require such a mode of treatment p. 607 d

XXXII. That not men only, but also women and every race of mankind, ought to be admitted to the education above described  p. 608 b

XXXIII. That it is not right to accuse the whole nation from the cases of those who live disorderly among us  p. 609 e

XXXIV. How Plato changed the oracles in Proverbs into a more Hellenic form  p. 610 a

XXXV. Of riches and poverty  p. 610 c

XXXVI. Of honour to parents p. 610 d

XXXVII. Of purchasing slaves p. 611 b

XXXVIII. How he altered the saying, 'Remove not ancient landmarks which were set by thy fathers'  p. 611 c

XXXIX. A saying like, Visiting the sins of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me   p. 611 d

XL. Of thieves  p. 612 a

XLI. Of slaying a thief  p. 612 c

XLII. Of a beast of burden  p. 612 d

XLIII. That Plato uses the same examples as the Hebrew Scriptures  p. 613 a

XLIV. Further concerning the like examples  p. 614 a XLV. Further concerning the same  p. 615 a

XLVI. Further concerning the same  p. 615 b

XLVII. That Plato also enacts that the citizens should be divided into twelve tribes in imitation of the Hebrew nation  p. 616 d

XLVIII. In what kind of place Plato enacts that the city should be founded : he describes certain features like the site of Jerusalem  p. 617 a

XLIX. How Plato deprecates the preparatory teaching of the Greeks as being injurious  p. 618 c

L. On the opinion of the Atheists, from the tenth Book of The Laws   p. 621 a

LI. How Plato arranges the argument concerning God  p. 623 c

LII. How he discourses on God's universal providence. In the tenth Book of The Laws p. 630 c

 

BOOK THIRTEEN

I. How Plato exposed the absurdity of the Greek theology. From the Timaeus   p. 639 d

II. Further on the same subject from the dialogue Epinomis   p. 640 d

III. Further on the same subject from the second Book of the Republic; also that God is not the cause of evils  p. 641 a

IV. That nothing else than indecent fables were contained in the narratives concerning the gods of the Greeks, for not believing which Socrates was put to death by the Athenians. From the Euthyphron   p. 649 d

V. Numenius on the same subject, from The Secrets in Plato   p. 650 d

VI. That one must not heed the opinions of the multitude, nor depart from one's own purpose for fear of death. From the Crito   p. 651 b

VII. That we must not retaliate on those who have endeavoured to injure us. From the same  p. 653 d

VIII. That we must not set aside what has once been rightly determined, not even if any one threaten death. And this will apply to those who renounce their religion in times of persecution  p. 655 e

IX. What will be the disposition of the man who through fear of death renounces his own purpose  p. 658 b

X. That one ought not to shrink from death in defence of the truth. From the Apology of Socrates   p. 659 d

XI. How we ought to honour the death of those who have nobly resigned their life. From Plato  p. 663 a

XII. How Aristobulus the Peripatetic, who was a Hebrew before our time, acknowledges that the Greeks have started from the philosophy of the Hebrews. From the statements of Aristobulus addressed to King Ptolemy  p. 663 d

XIII. How Clement in like proves that the noble sayings of the Greeks are in agreement with the doctrines of the Hebrews. From the fifth Miscellany   p.668d

XIV. That Plato has not stated all things correctly: wherefore it is not without reason that we have declined his philosophy, and accepted Hebrew oracles  p.691c

XV. That Plato was not altogether right in his conduct of the argument concerning the intelligible essences, but the Hebrews were  p. 694 c

XVI. That Plato did not on all points hold right opinions concerning the soul, like the Hebrews p. 696 b

XVII. That the nature of the soul does not, as Plato supposes, consist of an impassive and passive essence. From the Platonist Severus On the Soul p. 700 c

XVIII. That Plato was not altogether right in his opinions concerning heaven and the luminaries therein  p. 702 b

XIX. What kind of laws concerning women were not rightly ordained by Plato  p. 706 a

XX. Plato's directions in the Phaedrus concerning unlawful love opposed to the Laws of Moses  p. 709 c

XXI. Concerning the laws of murder in Plato, which were not worthy of his great intellect: with these the laws of Moses should be contrasted  p. 711 b

 

BOOK FOURTEEN

I. Preface concerning the subject of the Book  p. 717 a

II. On the mutual contradiction and conflict of the philosophers  p. 717 d

III. On the harmony of the Hebrew writers  p. 719 b

IV. How Plato has accused his predecessors. From the Theaetetus p. 720 d

V. On the first successors of Plato. From Numenius the Pythagorean  p. 737 b

VI. On Arcesilaus, the founder of the second Academy. From the same  p. 730 b

VII. Of Lacydes, the successor of Arcesilaus. From the same  p. 734 a

VIII. Of Carneades, the founder of the third Academy. From the same  p. 737 b

IX. Of Philo, who succeeded Cleitomachus, the successor of Carneades. From the same  p. 739 b

X. That among Greek philosophers there are conjectures, and logomachies, and much error. From Porphyry's Epistle to Nectenabo and other sources  p.741 b

XI. Concerning geometry, and astronomy, and syllogisms. From Xenophon's Memorabilia   p. 743 b

XII. Concerning the professors of Natural Science. From the same, in the Epistle to Aeschines   p. 745 a

XIII. On gymnastic and music. From Plato's Republic   p. 746 a

XIV. Opinions of philosophers on First Principles. From Plutarch p. 747 d

XV. On the doctrine of Anaxagoras. From Plato  p. 750 d

XVI. Opinions of philosophers concerning gods. From Plutarch  p. 753 b

XVII. Against the School of Xenophanes and Parmenides, who rejected the senses. From the eighth Book of Aristocles On philosophy   p. 756 b

XVIII. Against the followers of Pyrrhon, called Sceptics or Ephectics, who declared that nothing can be clearly apprehended. From Aristocles  p. 758 c

XIX. Against the philosophers of the School of Aristippus, who say that only feelings can be apprehended, and that of other things there is no apprehension. From the same  p. 764 c

XX. Against the School of Metrodorus and Protagoras, who say that the senses alone are to be trusted. From the same  p. 766 b

XXI. Against the Epicureans, who define the good as pleasure. From the same  p. 768 d

XXII. Further against those who define the good as pleasure. From the Philebus of Plato  p. 770 b

XXIII. Against the Epicureans, who deny a Providence, and refer the universe to corporeal atoms. From Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria, On Nature   p. 772 d

XXIV. From human examples. From the same  p. 773 d

XXV. From the constitution of the universe. From the same  p. 774 d

XXVI. From the nature of man. From the same  p. 778 c

XXVII. That to God there is no toil in working. From the same  p. 781 a

 

BOOK FIFTEEN

I. Preface concerning the whole argument  p 788 a

II. On the philosophy of Aristotle, and his personal history. From Aristocles the Peripatetic  p 791 b

III. On the doctrines of Aristotle, who was at variance with the Hebrews and Plato concerning the final good  p 793 d

IV. Atticus the Platonist against Aristotle, as at variance with Moses and Plato; in the discourse On the end   p 794 c

V. The same against the same, as at variance with Moses and Plato; in the discourse On Providence   p 798 c

VI. The same against the same, as at variance with Moses and Plato; in the discourse denying that the world was created  p 801 b

VII. The same against the same, as assuming a fifth corporeal essence, which neither Moses nor Plato recognized  p 804 b

VIII. The same against the same, as at variance with Plato also in his theories as to the heaven: matters about which Moses does not concern himself  p 806 c

IX. The same against the same, as at variance with Plato and the Hebrew Scriptures also on the subject of the immortality of the soul  p 808 d

X. Plotinus, from the second Book On the immortality of the soul, against Aristotle's assertion that the soul is an ' actuality' (εντελέχεια)   p 811 b

XI. Porphyry on the same, from the answer to BoŽthus On the soul   p 812 d

XII. Against the same, as at variance with Plato in the argument Concerning the universal soul. From the same  p 814 a

XIII. Against, the same; for ridiculing the Platonic Ideas, of which the Hebrew Scriptures also have already been shown not to be ignorant  p 815 a

XIV. On the Stoic philosophy, and the account of First Principles as rendered by Zeno. From the seventh Book of Aristocles On philosophy   p 816 d

XV. What kind of opinion the Stoics profess concerning God, and concerning the constitution of the universe. From Arius Didymus.  p 817 b

XVI. Porphyry, against the opinion of the Stoics concerning God, from the answer to BoŽthus On the soul.   p 818 c

XVII. That true Being cannot be body, as the Stoics teach. From the first Book of Numenius On the good   p 819 a

XVIII. What the Stoics think concerning the conflagration of the universe  p 820 b

XIX. What the Stoics think concerning the regeneration of the universe  p 820 d

XX. What the same sect think concerning the soul  p 821 c

XXI. The disputation of Longinus against the opinion of the Stoics concerning the soul  p 822 d

XXII. In answer to the Stoics, that the soul cannot possibly be corporeal From Plotinus On the soul, Book I  p 824 a

XXIII. Opinions of the physical philosophers concerning the sun; from Plutarch  p 836 a

XXIV. On the magnitude of the sun  p 837 a

XXV. On the figure of the sun  p 837 b

XXVI. On the moon  p 837 c

XXVII. On the magnitude of the moon  p 837 d

XXVIII. On the figure of the moon  p 838 a

XXIX. On the illumination of the moon  p 838 b

XXX. What is the substance of the planets and fixed stars  p 838 d

XXXI. On the shapes of the stars  p 839 c

XXXII. How the world was constituted  p 839 d

XXXIII. Whether the All is one  p 841 d

XXXIV. Whether the world has a soul, and is administered by Providence  p 842 b

XXXV. Whether the world is imperishable  p 842 d

XXXVI. From what source the world is sustained  p 843 a

XXXVII. From what God first began to create the world  p 843 b

XXXVIII. On the order of the world  p 843 d

XXXIX. What is the cause of the cosmical obliquity  p 844 b

XL. Concerning the outside of the world, whether it is a vacuum  p 844 d

XLI. Which is the right and which the left side of the world  p 845 a

XLII. Of the heaven, what is its substance  p 845 b

XLIII. Of daemons and heroes  p 845 c

XLIV. Of matter  p 845 d

XLV. Of form  p 846 a

XLVI. Of the order of the stars  p 846 b

XLVII. Of the course and motion of the heavenly bodies  p 846 d

XLVIII. Whence the stars derive their light  p 847 b

XLIX. Of the so-called Dioscuri  p 847 c

L. Of an eclipse of the sun  p 847 d

LI. Of an eclipse of the moon  p 848 b

LII. Of the appearance of the moon, and why it appears earthy  p 848 d

LIII. Of its distances  p 849 b

LIV. Of years  p 849 c

LV. Of the earth  p 849 d

LVI. Of the figure of the earth  p 850 a

LVII. Of the position of the earth  p 850 b

LVIII. Of the earth's motion  p 850 c

LIX. Of the sea, how it was formed, and why it is salt  p 851 a

LX. Of the parts of the soul  p 851 d

LXI. Of the ruling part  p 852 b

LXII. That even Socrates, the wisest of the Greeks, used to declare that those who boasted greatly of the Natural Science of the aforesaid matters were silly, as wasting time about things useless to life and incomprehensible  p 853 c

 

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