BOOK OF JOB

COMPLETE TEXT, BASED ON GREEK SEPTUAGINT (LXX)

 

        The book of Job may well be one of the most important books of the Bible because it presents the four NATURES of God's Mind as they are portrayed by four individuals, with Job representing the Spiritual Nature. There are many unknowns about the origins of this book, but they become unimportant in comparison to its spiritual message. For instance, it is only speculation that the city of Ausis (Ausitidi in MT) was the same as the Uz which recent scholars posit. One problem that should be noted is that the Greek Septuagint contains a postscript to the book which was not part of the original story of Job's life. The paragraph at the very end of the book, following 42:17, was added, probably at the time of the Ptolemies,  many years after the Israelite OT scriptures had been collected for the Alexandrian library in 285BC. Shedding some light on this addition is another postscript;  to the book of Esther. See Endnote for further discussion of this postscript.

        It is no wonder that scholars have rated the book of Job to be of low importance and even questionable whether it should be in our Bible. Besides their ignorance of the book's origin, they also do not know of the four Natures of God, which are the PHYSICAL, EMOTIONAL, SPIRITUAL, AND INTELLECTUAL Minds. God expresses Himself into manifestation through these four natures/minds. These four are also depicted in the Bible as the Four Living Beings of Revelation 4, the Cherubs of Ezekiel 1 & 10, and the Seraphs of Isaiah 6. The four also appear on the Brigade flags: of Juda as a Lion, of Ruben as a Man, of Ephraim as a Bull, and of Dan as an Eagle. Neither have scholars recognized that these four symbols are the four fixed signs of the Zodiac: Leo, Taurus, Aquarius, & Scorpio. So, when we find an illustration of God's four Natures/Minds as presented in the book of Job, we have found a pearl beyond price. See article The Four Minds for discussion of each of the four Minds..

        In this book of Job, the Spiritual Nature of God's expression through His offspring is represented by Job. Physical Nature is Eliphaz; Emotional Nature is Baldad; Intellectual Nature is Sophar. Job's three friends assault him with accusations and arguments when he is in manifestation as a person. While all four make up a child of God in this World, it appears that three of them act in opposition to the Spiritual Nature. Their arguments with Job provide us great insights into each of the four natures. If we are ever to know ourselves, which Jesus commanded us to do, then we must begin to understand that each of us is an activity of four natures which are not very harmonious. This book of Job ranks perhaps equal to the book of Revelation for one who seeks to know His Father, and himself.

 

        The text of Job presented below is a melding of the Greek Septuagint text of Sir Lancelot Brenton (1851) and the Septuagint translation of Charles Thomson (1808). Thomson's effort produced a more pleasantly readable version that sometimes is nearly a paraphrase, while Brenton's work is more literal. Melding the two versions results in a text that is even more easily understandable in modern English. I have changed the King James English of "thou" to "you," except in those passages when God is being addressed directly.

        Since Job represents the Spiritual Nature of God, as manifested in one of His offspring, we must understand that the Spiritual Nature (God's Holy Spirit) consists of several different facets, such as the Spirit of Wisdom, the Spirit of Power, etc.  Seven Spirits are listed in Esaias (Isaiah) 11. They are referenced in Revelation 4:5. And they are listed by Job in chapter 12. Each time one of the Spirits is mentioned, I will provide the Greek word which helps to clear the confusion between wisdom, knowledge, and understanding, along with confusion between strength, might, power, force, and dominion. More than seven are mentioned in Job, namely the following:  Wisdom (σοφια), Power  (δυναμις), Counsel or Will (βουλη), Understanding (συνεσις), Dominion (κράτος), Strength/force (ισχυος), Knowledge (επιστημη), Fear (φόβος), Godliness  (θεοσέβειά). Traditional Christianity has given very little attention to the Spirits which together comprise the Holy Spirit of God. Since we who are "born from  above" with God's indwelling Spirit (all facets), and since these forces are the primary motivators of one's spiritual life, growth, and development, it would benefit our people to meditate on these presences of God within us.

 

Roger Hathaway, February 2009


 

THE TEXT OF THE BOOK OF JOB (from the Greek Septuagint - LXX)

(JOB IS IN A PARADISE OF GOOD AND PLENTY)

(1:1)There was a certain man in a land of Ausis, whose name was Job, and that man was true, blameless, righteous, and Godly, abstaining from everything evil. (2)And he had seven sons and three daughters. (3)And his cattle consisted of seven thousand sheep, three thousand camels, five hundred yoke of oxen, five hundred she-asses in the pastures, and a very great household, and he had a great husbandry on the earth; and that man was well-born (eugenes: good race) of those of the East.

        The land of Ausis is not known. The Masoretic Hebrew Text (MT), of 1,000AD, changed it to "Uz," a city in Edom, which would certainly not be possible considering the high level spiritual symbolism in the book, and the fact that the Edomites do not possess that Spiritual Nature which is exclusive to God's elect lineage from Adam. Clearly, it was the Edomite masoretes who attempted to claim Job as an Edomite, something not possible (see introductory explanation above). It is possible, and likely, that this book comes from an ancient past, perhaps all the way back to Adam. We know very little about Adam, but in this story Job begins in a paradise where everything was heavenly and he devoted his mind to God. Whether Job can be identified with Adam is not so important as the insights which this book contains into the spiritual values and thoughts of our ancestors of pre-record. This contest of a Godly man who is being assaulted by a world of earthly men makes this book a "type" of the Bhagavad Gita, one of the supreme spiritual scriptures of the world, whose origin was likely from our ancient ancestors when Adam's descendants had settled in the Punjab region of northwest India. The Sanskrit Upanishads most likely provide us an insight into the high level of spiritual thinking of our people long before Abram instituted the religion of the Old Testament.

        Victor Hugo, the great author of Les Miserables and Hunchback of Notre Dame, said "The Book of Job is perhaps the Greatest Masterpiece of the Human Mind."

    (1:4) And his sons visiting one another prepared a banquet each on his day, taking with them their three sisters to eat and drink with them. (5)And when the days of the banquet were completed, Job sent and purified them, having risen up in the morning, and offered sacrifices for them, according to their number, and one calf for a sin-offering for their souls (psychon: minds): for Job said, Lest peradventure my sons have thought evil towards God: Thus Job always did that.

 

    (THE DEVIL BARGAINS)

    (1:6)  And it happened on a day, that behold, when the angels of God came to stand before the Lord, the Devil came with them. (7)And the Lord said, where did you come from? And the Devil answered the Lord, saying, I have come from compassing the earth, and walking up and down in the world.  (8)And the Lord said to him, Have you carefully considered my servant, Job, that none is like him on the earth, a man blameless, true, Godly, abstaining from everything evil? (9)Then the Devil answered and said before the Lord, Does Job worship the Lord for nothing? (10)Have you not made a hedge about him, and about his household, and round about all his possessions? And have you not blessed the works of his hands, and multiplied his cattle upon the land? (11)But put forth your hand and touch all that he has: and he will renounce you to your face. (12)Then the Lord said to the devil, Behold, I give into your hand all that he has, but touch not him. So the Devil went out from the presence of the Lord.

 

    (JOB LOSES CHATTEL, SERVANTS, & CHILDREN)

    (1:13) And it happened on a certain day, that Job's sons and his daughters were drinking wine in the house of their elder brother. (14)And, behold, a messenger came to Job, and said to him, The yokes of oxen were plowing, and the she-asses were feeding near them; (15)and the spoilers came and took them for prey, and slew the servants with the sword; and I, having escaped alone, am come to tell you. (16)While he was yet speaking, there came another messenger, and said to Job, Fire has fallen from heaven, and burnt up the sheep, and devoured the shepherds likewise: and I, having escaped alone, am come to tell you. (17)While he was yet speaking, another messenger came, saying to Job, The horsemen formed three companies against us, and surrounded the camels, and took them for a prey, and slew the servants with the sword; and I only escaped, and am come to tell you. (18)While he is yet speaking, another messenger comes, saying to Job, While your sons and your daughters were eating and drinking with their elder brother, suddenly a great wind came on them from the desert, and caught the four corners of the house, and the house fell upon your children, and they are dead; and I have escaped alone, and am come to tell you.

    (1:20) So Job arose, and tore his clothes, and shaved the hair off his head, and fell on the earth, and worshipped, (21)and said,  myself came forth naked from my mother's womb, and naked shall I return thither: the Lord gave, the Lord has taken away: as it seemed good to the Lord, so has it come to pass; blessed be the name of the Lord. (22)In all these events that befel him, Job sinned not at all before the Lord, and did not think it inconsiderate of God.

        (v 21-22) Here is a very meaningful example for every spiritual person. Consider that Job loved his children and hoped wonderful futures for them as he prepared to leave them wealthy and prosperous. As many fathers do, he might have estimated a son or two to have even greater potential than himself. So, daily life is often lived for the sake of the future. Children are the father's treasure and great pleasure. For them to be suddenly taken away, a father sees that as a personal loss; he feels devastated and robbed of all he valued. He might question why God would let a person of great potential be wasted like a piece of dust into a flame. The truth is, of course, that each person is an expression of God, and it is God who causes both the beginning and end of that life. God does not share the same worldly hopes and goals which give meaning to a person's life. If we are all sort of "figments" of God's mind, then it is God who permits or engineers the death of a person; it is His will, and wisdom should help us to believe that God's will is for the best, whatever that "best" might be. It is not for us to judge God's will, whether it is "best" or otherwise. We can be confident that His will is being done, and therefore, we can be content that He wants it to be that way. Job did not see God as being inconsiderate, neither to his sons nor to himself. Nor did he see himself at fault for the disastrous events. What he did was to tear his clothes off and yield to the nakedness of having nothing, saying that since he came into the world that way, so will he leave. He accepted everything as God's good will.

 

        (DEVIL BARGAINS AGAIN)

    (2:1) It happened on a certain day that the angels of God came to stand before the Lord, and the devil came among them to stand before the Lord. (2)And the Lord said to the devil, Where do you come from? Then the devil said before the Lord, I am come from going through under the heavens, and walking about the whole earth. (3)And the Lord said to the devil, Have you then observed my servant Job, that there is none of men upon the earth like him, a harmless, true, blameless, Godly man, abstaining from all evil? and he yet cleaves to innocence; why have you told me to destroy his substance without cause? (4)And the devil answered and said to the Lord, Skin for skin, all that a man has will he give as a ransom for his life. (5)Nay, but put forth your hand and touch his bones and his flesh: verily he will renounce you to your face. (6)And the Lord said to the devil, Behold, I deliver him up to you; only save his life.

    (SMITTEN WITH FESTERING SORES)

    (2:7) So, the devil went out from the Lord, and smote Job with festering sores from feet to head. (8)And he took a potsherd to scrape away the discharge, and sat upon a dung-heap outside the city.

    (WIFE URGES HIM TO SPEAK AGAINST GOD

    (2:9) And when much time had passed, his wife said to him, How long will you hold out, saying Look, I wait yet a little while, expecting the hope of my deliverance?  for behold, your memorial is abolished from the earth, even your sons and daughters, the pangs and pains of my womb which I bore in vain with sorrows; and you yourself sit down to spend the nights in the open air among the corruption of worms, and I am a wanderer and a servant from place to place and house to house, waiting for the setting of the sun, that I may rest from my labours and my pangs which now beset me: but say some word against the Lord, and die.(10)But he looked on her, and said to her, You have spoken like one of the foolish women. If we have received good things of the hand of the Lord, shall we not endure evil things?

        In all these things that happened to him, Job sinned not at all with his lips before God.

 

    (THREE FRIENDS: Physical, Emotions, & Intellect)

    (2:11) Now, his three friends, having heard of all the evil that was come upon him, came to him, each from his own country: ELIPHAZ the king of the Thaemans (Taima, NW Arabia), BALDAD sovereign of the Saucheans (Shuah, NE Arabia), SOPHAR king of the Minaeans (S Arabia): and they came to him with one accord, to comfort and to visit him. (12)And when they saw him from a distance they did not know him; and they cried with a loud voice, and wept, and each one tore his clothes, and sprinkled dust upon their heads, (13)and they sat down beside him seven days and seven nights, and no one of them spoke; for they saw that his affliction was dreadful and very great.

        In later verses we will see how clearly the three friends represent three Natures of God while Job represents the fourth. The locations from which these three friends have come is probably meaningful, but scholars can only speculate on where they might have been as some ancient time. It is somewhat commonly accepted by scholars that the three locations might be from the NW and NE and Southern parts of Arabia. Job's home is at Ausis, which some think might have been the city of Uz. In that case, Job would live in the NW region, as did Eliphaz. Given that this story represents the interplay of the Four Natures of God, it is extremely unlikely that Job (Spiritual Nature) came from Edom, or even from anywhere near Eliphaz who signifies the Physical Nature. Until there is better information about the locations, we must abide the lack of this information which was probably meaningful.

        For seven days and nights the three lower natures (making up one's brief life & then gone) did not communicate with the Spiritual Nature (eternal part of God which never dies) because they saw his affliction. If we imagine this whole event to symbolize the coming to earth of a Spirit-being child of God, then we can see that the affliction would be great. The meaning of seven days and nights is yet a mystery.

        Before we get into details about the four natures, I would suggest that all four are OF GOD, and are Godly. It is through these Natures that God extends Himself into our "reality," which is an expression of Himself. But, it is true that the three lower natures (brief life & then gone) are like coins with two sides, negative and positive, or dark and Light. The Godly function of these Natures is what we strive to practice, but in this Kingdom of World we are born and raised and steeped into the aspects of the dark side. It is the negative world societal influences which plague and torment us Spirit-beings as they try to recruit us away from that righteousness which God calls us to. While we are going to see the work of the dark influences in this story, let us not forget that they might be expressing the negative side of the Godly design of Physical, Emotional, and Intellect.


        Credit is due to Bob Steffens for his inspired insight which identifies Job and his three friends as the four Natures of God. This is a true breakthrough insight, perhaps a Revelation, which no one had ever seen before. An exposition about God's four natures places the book of Job alongside the book of Revelation in importance. After so many centuries of ignorance, one can hardly rate this work of Bob Steffens highly enough; it must stand along side any of the great spiritual works in history.  See his commentary at JOB ON THE SINE WAVE CURVE. Here is an excerpt from Bob Steffens' work:

 

Job 2:11-31:40 - Here lies the excitement and the meat of the whole book and this is so important. Recall the brief introduction to the Four Minds of God. How would you like to be a spectator where four Scholars, each representing one of the Four Minds, with each one discussing the description and workings of the mind he represents?  Thus is the book of Job.  

Of the Four Minds we have:
Job represents Man - the Spiritual nature
Eliphaz represents the Physical nature. 4:10,11 roaring lion, fierce lion, young lions, old lion, stout lion's 5:25 "seed" shall be great 4:19 flesh man (clay).
Bildad represents the Emotional nature 18:3 counted as "beasts" 18:4 teareth himself in "anger"
Zophar represents the Intellect nature 11:2 words, talk 11:3 lies 11:4 doctrine 11:5 God would "speak" 11:6 secrets of "wisdom" 20:2 thoughts 20:3 understanding


 

        (JOB = SPIRITUAL.   -CURSE THE DAY THAT I WAS BORN)

    (3:1) After this Job opened his mouth, and cursed his day, saying, Let the day perish in which I was born, and that night in which they said, Behold a manchild! (4)Let that night be darkness, and let not the Lord regard it from above, neither let light come upon it. (5)But let darkness and the shadow of death seize it; let blackness come upon it; (6)let that day and night be cursed, let darkness carry them away; let it not come into the days of the year, neither let it be numbered with the days of the months. (7)But let that night be pain, and let not mirth come upon it, nor joy. (8)But let him that curses that day curse it, even he that is ready to attack the great monster. (9)Let the stars of that night be darkened; let it remain dark, and not come into light; and let it not see the morning star arise: (10)because it shut not up the gates of my mother's womb, for so it would have removed sorrow from my eyes.

        (3:11) For why died I not in the belly? and why did I not come forth from the womb and die immediately? (12)And why did the knees support me? and why did I suck the breasts? (13)Now I should have lain down and been quiet; I should have slept and been at rest, (14)with kings and councillors of the earth, who gloried in their swords; (15)or with rulers, whose gold was abundant, who filled their houses with silver: (16)or I should have been  a premature birth proceeding from his mother's womb, or as infants who never saw light. (17)There the ungodly have burnt out the fury of rage; there the wearied-in-body rest. (18)And the men of old time have together ceased to hear the exactor's voice. (19)The small and great are there, and the servant that feared his lord.

        (3:20) For why is light given to those who are in misery, and life to the souls which are in griefs? (21)who long for death but find it not, though they dig for it as for treasures; (22)and would rejoice exceedingly if they should gain it? (23)For God has shut up death from a man to whom it would be a repose. (24)For my groaning comes before my food, and I pour forth tears, begirt with sorrow. (25)For the terror, which I dreaded,  has come upon me, and that which I had feared has befallen me. (26)Did I not cultivate peace? Was I not quiet? Was I not at rest? Yet wrath is come upon me.

        Job is the Spirit-Being, being born into a physical body. He complains bitterly of it, preferring to not be born. He exalts death as a place where the "fury of rage" has been burnt out, so one can have rest. In other words, in death the emotional nature is not tormenting the soul. He curses the light because it reveals to the intellect an understanding of the great misery of this world life. Light usually represents wisdom, truth, knowledge, understanding, the intellectual mind.

 

        (ELIPHAZ = PHYSICAL NATURE/MIND)

    (4:1) But Eliphaz the Thaimanite interrupted him, saying: Has much been said to you in your distress? But who can endure the force of your words? (3)For whereas you have instructed many, and have strengthened the hands of the weak, (4)and have supported the fainting with words; and have imparted courage to to weak knees. (5)Yet now that pain has come upon you, and touched you, you are troubled. (6)Is not your fear founded in folly, your hope also, and this calamity the effect of your conduct? (7)Remember then, Whoever perished being innocent? Or when were the righteous utterly destroyed. (8)As I have seen men plowing improper ground, they who sow such places shall reap sorrows for themselves. (9)They shall perish by the decree of the Lord, and shall be utterly consumed by the breath of his wrath.

    (10)The strength of a lion and the roaring of a lioness, and the boastful pride of dragons have been extinguished. (11)Old lions have perished for lack of food; and young lions have forsaken each other. (12)But had there been any truth in your words none of these evils would have happened to you.

    (13)Shall not my ears receive revelations from Him? At a dreadful sound in the night, when terror falls upon men, horror and trembling seized me and caused all my bones to greatly shake. (15)And a spirit came before my face; and my hair and flesh quivered. (16)I arose but couldn't perceive it: I looked, but there was no form before my eyes: I only heard a sound and a voice saying: What? Can a mortal be pure before the Lord? or a man by his works be blameless? (18)If He (God) doesn't place confidence in His servants, and finds fault with His messengers: (19)how should He treat them who dwell in houses of clay, of which clay we indeed are, but as worms. And after morning to evening they have perished because they cannot help themselves. (21)For He blows upon them and they are withered: they have perished because they have no wisdom (σοφια).

 

    (5:1) But now, will anyone hearken to you? Or will you see any of the holy angels? (2)For anger destroys the foolish, and envy slays him who has gone astray. (3)I have seen foolish ones taking root, but their sustenance was quickly devoured. (4)Let their children be far from safety, and let them be crushed at the doors of vile men, and let there be no deliverer. (5)For what they have collected, the righteous shall eat; but they shall not be delivered out of calamities: their strength shall be utterly exhausted. (6)For trouble cannot come forth out of the earth; nor shall trouble spring out of the mountains: (7)Yet man is born for trouble, just as young vultures seek to fly.

    (5:8)Nevertheless I will beseech the Lord and will call upon the Lord, the master of all; (9)Who does great and unsearchable things - things glorious and wonderful, not to be numbered, (10)who gives rain on the earth and sends water upon all under heaven, (11)who exalts the lowly and raises up them that are lost, (12)frustrating the will (βουλη) of the crafty so their hands cannot succeed. (13)Who entangles the wise in their wisdom (σοφια), and defeats the will (βουλη) of the schemers. (14)In the daylight darkness shall come upon them, that they may grope at noontime as at night, (15)and that they may perish in battle, and let the weak escape from the hand of the mighty. (16)And that the weak may have hope, and the mouth of the wicked be stopped.

    (5:17)But blessed is the man whom the Lord reproves; Despise not the chastening of the Almighty. (18)For he causes a man to be in pain and restores him again: he smites, and His hands heal. (19)Six times he shall deliver you out of distress, and in the seventh harm shall not touch you. (20)In famine He shall deliver you from death: and in battle He shall free you from the edge of the sword.  (21)He will hide you from the scourge of the tongue: and you shall not be afraid of coming evils. (22)You shall laugh at the unrighteous and the lawless: and you shall not be afraid of wild beasts; (23)for beasts of the field shall be at peace with you. (24)Then shall you know that your house shall be at peace, and the provision for your household shall not fail. (25)You shall know that your seed shall be abundant; and your children shall be like the grass of the field. (26)And you shall come to the grave like ripe grain reaped in due season, or like a heap on the threshing floor, carried home in time.

    (27)Behold, we have thus sought out these matters; these are what we have heard: but you reflect with yourself, if you have done anything wrong.

        Eliphaz, the Physical Nature, taunts Job, the Spiritual Nature by reminding him how he has counseled and comforted others who were suffering with his words, now that he feels some pain himself, he isn't so arrogant anymore. Then Eliphaz goes on to explain the Physical Nature, affirming that physical men seek trouble just as birds yearn to fly. He says he can get revelations from God, too, but they are like nightmares. Nevertheless, he will pray anyway to the God who can do anything. But in the end, it's best to consider God's reproof as something positive. Essentially, he is taunting Job by implying that Job must have done something wrong to bring such grief upon himself.

 

        (JOB RESPONDS)

    (6:1) To this Job replied: (2)Oh that some one would weigh the wrath which is upon me, and balance it against my calamities. (3)But they would be heavier than the sand of the sea; but it seems my words to you are in vain; (4)for the arrows of the Lord are in my body, whose violence drinks up my blood: whenever I am going to speak, they pierce me. What? will a wild ass bray without cause? Is he not seeking food? or again, will the ox low at the manger when he has fodder? Shall bread be eaten without salt? or again, is there taste in empty words? (7)For my temper cannot be calm while my meat stinks like a lion. (8)O that He would grant my desire, and my petition might come, and Lord would grant my hope! (9)Let the Lord, having begun, wound me, but not utterly destroy me. (10)Let the grave be my city, having got upon its walls I will not be slack to enter, for I have not disputed the holy commands of my God. (11)For what is my strength, that I should continue? what is my time, that my soul endures? (12)Is my strength the strength of stones? or is my flesh of brass? (13)Or have I not trusted in Him? but help is far from me. (14)Mercy has rejected me; and the visitation of the Lord has disregarded me. (15)My nearest relations have not regarded me; they have passed me by like a rushing stream, or like a wave. (16)They who used to respect me have now come against me like snow or ice, (17)which melting at the approach of heat, what it was is not known. (18)Thus have I been forsaken by all; I am ruined and become an outcast. (19)Behold the ways of the Thaemanites, ye who mark the paths of the Sabaeans. (20)They too who trust in cities and riches shall come to shame. (21)But now when you have come to me, it is without compassion, just to see my wound and be terrified. (22)What? Have I asked anything of you, or do I ask any help from you? (23)to save me from enemies, or to rescue me from the hand of the mighty ones?

    (6:24)Tell me, and I will be silent. If I have erred, tell me. (25)But, it seems the words of a true man are futile, for I don't ask any help from you. (26)Neither will your reproof stop my speaking, nor will I endure the sound of your speech: because you not only attack the fatherless, but also insult your friend. (28)But now, having looked you in the face, I will not lie. (29)Sit down now, and let there be no more reproaches. (30) For there are no reproaches on my tongue, and is not my taste for understanding (συνεσις)?

 

    (7:1) Is not the life of man upon earth a state of trial, and his existence that of a day-hireling? (2)Is he not like a servant who fears his master and who grasps at shadows? Or like a hireling waiting for his pay? (3)Just so have I waited months in vain, while nights of pain have been appointed me. (4)When I lay down to rest, I say, When will it be day? and when I rise up again, I say, when will it be evening? I am full of pains from evening to morning. (5)And my body swarms with loathsome worms; and I waste away, scraping off clods of dirt from my sores. (6)My life is lighter than a word, and has perished in vain hope. (7)Remember then that my life is but a breath; and that my eyes shall never again see good. (8)The eye of him who sees me now shall not see me again. Your eyes are upon me and I am no more. (9)I am like a cloud that is cleared away from the sky; for if a man goes down to the grave, he shall not come up again; (10)he can never again return to his own house, neither shall his place know him anymore. (11)So, I shall not refrain my mouth: I will speak being in distress; being in anguish I will express the bitterness of my soul.

    (7:12) Am I a sea or a serpent that you set a watch over me? (13)I said that my bed will solace me, and I will privately counsel with myself on my couch. (14)You scare me with dreams, and terrify me with visions. (15)You will divide my life from my spirit; and yet keep my bones from death. (16)For I shall not live forever, that I should bear patiently. Depart from me, for my life is futile.

 

(JOB PRAYS)

    (7:17)For what is man that Thou hast magnified him, or that Thou heedest him? (18)Wilt Thou guard him till morning, and judge him to the time of going to rest? (19)How long wilt Thou not let me alone; nor let me go so that I may swallow my spit? (20)If I have sinned, what can I do? O Thou Who knowest the mind of men, why has Thou made me as Thine accuser? And why am I a burden to Thee? (21)Why has Thou not forgotten mine iniquity and purged my sin? Now, I shall depart to the earth, and in the morning I am no more.

 

(BALDAD = EMOTIONAL NATURE/MIND)

    (8:1)Then Baldad, the Sauchite, spoke, saying: (2)How long will you speak such things; how long will your breath produce such words? (3)Will the Lord be unjust when He judges, or will He Who has made all things pervert justice? (4)If your sons have sinned before Him, He has cast them away because of their transgression. (5)But rise up early in prayer to the Lord Almighty. (6)If you are pure and true, He will hearken to your supplication and will restore to you the reward of Righteousness. (7)Then, though your beginning be small, your end will be unspeakably great.

    (8:8)For inquire of the former generations and search diligently among the race of our fathers: (9)for we are but of yesterday and know nothing - for our life upon earth is but a shadow. (10)Will not they teach you, and report to you, and bring out words from their heart? (11)Can the papyrus grow without water? Or can grass grow without moisture? (12)While grass is low it should not be mowed; does not any herb wither before it receives moisture? (13)Such therefore shall be the end of all who forget the Lord: for the hope of the ungodly shall perish. (14)For his house shall be without inhabitants, and his tent shall be a spider's web. (15)Though he prop up his house, it cannot stand; though he take hold of it, it shall not remain. (16)For it is moist under the sun, and his branch shall come forth out of his dung. (17)He lies down upon a gathering of stones and shall live in the midst of flints. (18)If God should destroy him, his place shall deny him. Have you not seen such things, (19)that such is the overthrow of the ungodly? And out of the earth, another shall spring up.

    (8:20)For the Lord will by no means reject the innocent man, nor accept a gift from the ungodly. (21)But he will fill with laughter the mouth of the upright, and their lips with songs of thanksgiving. (22)But their enemies shall be clothed with shame; and the habitation of the ungodly shall perish.

 

(JOB RESPONDS)

    (9:1) To this Job replied, (2)Of a truth, I know that is so. For how can a mortal man be just before the Lord? (3)For were he to come to trial with Him, God would not hearken to him; he could not answer on charge of His in a thousand. (4)For He is wise in mind, mighty and great: who has ever hardened himself against Him and endured? (5)Who wears out the mountains without regard; who overturns them in anger? (6)Who shakes the earth under heaven from its foundations, so that its pillars totter? (7)Who commands the sun and it rises not; and seals up the stars? (8)Who alone has stretched out the heavens and walks on the sea as on firm ground? (9)Who is the Maker of the Pleiads and Hesperus and Arcturus, and the chambers of the south? (10)Who does great and unsearchable things; glorious also and excellent things, innumerable?

    (9:11) If ever He should go beyond me, I shall not see him: if He should pass by me, neither would I have known it. (12)If He dismisses, who shall bring back? Or who shall say to Him, What hast Thou done? (13)If then He doesn't quell His anger, even the great monsters stoop to Him.

    (9:14)But if He will hearken to me, or judge my cause, (15)for if I be righteous will He not hearken to me; shall I not entreat His judgment? (16)And if I call and He will not answer, I cannot believe that He has heard my voice.

    (9:17) Let Him not crush me with a tempest; but He has multiplied my wounds without cause. (18)For He suffers me not to take breath without filling me with bitterness. (19)For He prevails because He is mighty; who can withstand His judgment. (20)Though I should seem righteous, my mouth will be profane; and though I should seem blameless, I shall be proved perverse. (21)For even if I have sinned, I know it not in my soul; but my life is taken away.

    (9:22)Wherefore I said, Wrath slays the great and mighty. (23)The worthless die, but the righteous are laughed to scorn. (24)For they are delivered into the hands of the wicked. He covers the faces of the judges, but if it is not He, then who?  But my life is more fleeting than a courier; my days have fled quickly, unknowingly. (26)Or again, is there any track left by ships? Or is there one of the eagle in pursuit of its prey? (27)And if I say I shall not speak, bowing my face down to the ground and moaning, I tremble in all my limbs, for I know that Thou wilt not leave me alone as innocent.

    (9:29)Now, since I am wicked, why have I not died? (30)For if I wash myself with snow, and purge myself with pure hands, (31)Thou hast already plunged me into filth so that my very clothes abhor me. (32)For Thou art not man like me, with whom I could contend, that we might come to an agreement. (33)Would that a mediator was between us, and a reprover, one who could hear us both. (34)Let Him remove His rod from me, and let not His fear terrify me; (35)Let me not be terrified, but speak, otherwise I am not in control of myself.

 

(JOB PRAYS)

    (10:1) Weary in my soul, I will pour my words with groans upon Him; I will speak being straitened in the bitterness of my soul, (2)and I will say to the Lord, Do not teach me to be impious; and for what cause hast Thou condemned me? (3)Is it good to Thee that I should be unrighteous, since Thou hast disowned the work of Thy hands and favored the counsel (βουλη) of the wicked? (4)Dost Thou see as a mortal sees? or wilt Thou look as a man sees? (5)Or is Thy life human, or Thy years those of a man, (6)that Thou hast enquired into mine iniquity and searched out my sins? (7)For Thou knowest that I have not committed iniquity; but who can deliver me out of Thy hands? (8)Thy hands have formed me and made me; afterwards Thou didst change Thy mind and smite me. (9)Remember that Thou hast made me as clay, and art turning me again to the earth. (10)Hast Thou not poured me out like milk, and curdled me like cheese? (11)And Thou didst clothe me with skin and flesh, and frame me with bones and sinews. (12)And Thou didst bestow upon me life and mercy, and Thy oversight has preserved my spirit. (13)Having these things in Thyself, I know that Thou canst do all things; for nothing is impossible for Thee.

    (10:14)But if I sin, Thou watchest me; and Thou hast not cleared me from iniquity. (15)Or if I should be ungodly, woe is me; and if I should be righteous, I cannot lift myself up for I am full of dishonor. (16)For I am hunted like a lion for slaughter; for again Thou hast changed and art terribly destroying me; (17)renewing against me my torture; and Thou hast dealt with me in great anger, and Thou hast brought trials upon me.

    (10:18) Why then didst Thou bring me out of the womb? and why did I not die, and no eye see me, (19)and become as if I never existed? Why was I not carried from the womb to the grave? (20)Is not the time of my life short? Permit me to rest a little, (21)before I go whence I shall not return, to a land of darkness and gloom, (22)to a land of everlasting darkness, where there is no light, neither can any one see the life of mortals.

 

 (SOPHAR = INTELLECT NATURE/MIND)

     (11:1) Then Sophar, the Minaean spoke, saying, (2)He that speaks much should also listen to the other side; or does the fluent speaker think himself to be righteous? Blessed is the short-lived offspring of woman. (3)Be not a speaker of many words; for there is none to answer you; (4)Don't say I am pure in my works and blameless before Him.

    (11:5) But how would the Lord speak to you, were He to open His lips against you? (6)Indeed, were He to unfold to you the power (δυναμις) of wisdom (σοφια); because it must needs be double that which is with you, then you would know that a just recompense of you sins has come to you from the Lord.

    (11:7) Can you trace the footsteps of the Lord? Or have you come to the end of that which the Almighty has made? (8)Heaven is high; and what then can you do? And there are things deeper than those in Hades; what do you know? (9)Or longer than the measure of the earth, or the breadth of the sea.

    (11:10) And if He should overthrow all things, who will say to Him, What have You done? (11)For He knows the works of the wicked, and on seeing wickedness will not overlook it.

    (11:12) But man vainly buoys himself up with words; and a mortal born of a woman is like a wild ass. (13)For if you have made your heart pure, and lift up your hands toward Him; (14)if there is any iniquity in your hands, put it far from you, and let not unrighteousness lodge in your dwelling. (15)For thus will your countenance brighten like pure water; you will disrobe yourself of uncleanness, and shall not fear. (16)And you shall forget trouble, as a wave that has passed by; and you shall not be scared. (17)And your wish will spring up like the morning star, and life shall arise to you as from the noonday. (18)And you shall be confident because you have hope; and peace shall dawn to you from out of anxiety and care. (19)For you shall rest at ease, and there shall be no one to fight against you; and many shall charge, and make supplication to you. (20)But safety shall fail them; for their hope is destruction, and the eyes of the ungodly shall waste away.

 

(JOB RESPONDS)

    (12:1)To this Job replied: (2)So, then, you alone are men, and wisdom (σοφια) will die with you? (3)But I also have a heart as well as you. (4)For a righteous and blameless man has become a subject for mockery. (5)For it had been ordained that for a time he should fall beneath others; and that his houses should be spoiled by transgressors: nevertheless, let no wicked man have a confidence that he shall escape condemnation. Whoever provokes the Lord to anger; shall they not also undergo a trial?

    (12:7) But ask now the four-leg beasts if they can speak to you, and the birds of the air, if they can tell you; (8)Speak to the earth, if can tell you; even if the fishes of the sea can tell you. (9)Who then among all these does not know that the hand of the Lord has done these things? (10)Is not the mind (psyche) of all living things in His hand, and the spirit (pneuma) of every man?

    (12:11) The ear indeed discerns words, and the throat tastes meat. (12)By length of time wisdom (σοφια) is acquired; and by long life knowledge. (13)With Him are Wisdom (σοφια) and Power  (δυναμις), with Him Counsel/Will (βουλη) and Understanding (συνεσις) (14)If He should cast down, who will build up? If He should shut against men, who can open? (15)If He should withhold water, the earth will dry; and if He should let it loose, He overthrows and destroys. (16)With Him are Dominion (κράτος) and Strength/force (ισχυος);  He has Knowledge (επιστημη) and Understanding (συνεσις).   [See the article Seven Spirits for discussion of this subject]     (17)He leads counsellors away captive and confounds the judges of the earth. (18)He seats kings upon thrones, and girds their loins with a girdle. (19)He sends priests into captivity, and overthrows the sovereigns of the earth. (20)He changes the lips of the faithful, and He knows the understanding (συνεσις) of the elders. (21)He pours contempt upon princes, and heals the lowly. (22)He reveals deep things out of darkness; and He has brought into light the shadow of death. (23)He leads nations into error and destroys them; He overthrows nations and leads them away. (24)He perplexes the hearts of princes of the earth, and causes them to wander in a way they know not; (25)that they will grope in darkness without light; and stagger like a drunken man.

 

    (13:1) Behold, mine eye has seen these things, and mine ear has heard them. (2)And I know all that you know; and I have no less intelligence than you.

    (13:3) Nevertheless, I will speak to the Lord and will argue before Him, if He will (βουληται). (4)But you are all bad physicians and healers of diseases. (5)Rather that you be silent; it would be wisdom (σοφια) to you in the end.

    (13:6) But listen to the argument of my mouth and the pleading of my lips. (7)Would you speak before the Lord and utter deceit before Him. (8)Or will you draw back? You come to that judgment for yourselves. (9)It would be well if He would thoroughly search you; for in doing all things you should attach yourselves to Him (10)for He will not reprove you less; but if you should secretly adore an other sacrificial offering, will not His whirlwind sweep you around, and His terror fall upon you? (12)And He will cast off your arrogance like ashes, and your body of clay.

    (13:13) Be silent that I may speak and pause from my anger, (14)take my flesh in my teeth, and put my life in my hand. (15)Though the Almighty should lay hand upon me, as He has begun, verily, I will speak and plead before Him. (16)And this He will turn to me for salvation, for deceit shall not come before Him. (17)Hear, Hear, for I will say it in your hearing. (18)Behold, I am near my judgment. I know I shall appear righteous. (19)Who is he that might plead with me to now be silent and expire?

 

(JOB PRAYS)

    (13:20) Grant me two things; then I will not hide myself from Thy face: (21)Withdraw Thine hand from me, andlet not Your Fear (φόβος - one of the seven Spirits of God in Esaias 11:3, but not mentioned above in 12:11) terrify me. (22)Then call me and I will hear Thee, or speak and I will answer. (23)How many are my sins and my transgressions? Teach me what they are.

    (13:24) Why dost Thou hide Thyself from me and consider me your enemy? (25)Wilt Thou be startled (by me) as a leaf is shaken by the wind? Or wilt Thou set Thyself against me as against grass blowing in the wind? (26)For Thou hast written bad things against me, and compassed me with the sins of my youth; (27)Thou hast placed my foot in the stocks and hast watched all my doings, and hast tracked my footsteps. (28)I am like an old bladder or a moth-eaten garment.

 

    (14:1) A mortal born of a woman is short-lived and full of anger. (2)Or he falls like a flower that has bloomed; and he departs like a shadow and cannot stay. (3)Hast Thou not called him to account and caused him to come to trial before Thee? (4)For who shall be cleansed from stain? Surely none. (5)Even if his life should be but one day upon earth; his months are numbered, Thou hast appointed him for a time, and he shall not exceed it. (6)Turn away from him, that he may take a rest, and comfort his life like a hireling.

    (14:7) There is hope for a tree, even if cut down, that it should blossom again and its branch shall not fail. (8)For though its root grows old in the earth, and its stem dies in the rock; (9)it will blossom from the scent of water, and will produce a crop as one newly planted. (10)But a man who has died is utterly gone; when a mortal has fallen, he is no more. (11)The sea is spent in course of time, and when a river is unsupplied it dries up. (12)And man who has lain down in death shall certainly not rise again till the heaven be dissolved, and they shall not wake from their sleep.

    (14:13) O that Thou hadst kept me in Hades; and hidden me until Thy wrath should cease; and Thou shouldest set a time when Thou wouldst remember me! (14)For though a man die, he may be revived, after finishing the days of his life; I would wait patiently till I exist again. (15)Then when Thou callest, I will answer; but do not reject the work of Thine hands. (16)Now, Thou has numbered my devices, and not one of my sins shall escape Thee. (17)Thou hast sealed up my transgressions in a bag, and marked if I have been guilty of any transgression unaware.

    (18) Verily a mountain falling will be utterly destroyed, even a rock may be forced from its place. (19)The waters wear the stones, and waters falling headlong move a mound of earth; and Thou destroyest the hopes of man. (20)Thou drivest him to an end and he is gone; Thou settest Thy face against him and he is dismissed. (21)And though his children be multiplied he knows it not; and if they be few, he is not aware. (22)But his flesh is in pain and his soul mourns.

 

    (ELIPHAZ: (Physical Nature) RETORT)

    (15:1) Here Eliphaz the Thaemanite takes it up, saying, (2)Will a wise man give a mere breath of understanding (συνεσις) for an answer, (3)and give himself indigestion with ill reasoning and with words which have no profit? (4)Haven't you cast off fear and spouted such words before the Lord? (5)You are guilty by the words of your mouth, neither have you discerned the words of the Almighty. (6)Let your own mouth, and not me, convict you; your own lips will testify against you.

    (15:7) What? Were you the first man born, or were you established before the hills? (8)Have you heard the treatise of the Lord? Or has God used you for His counsellor (βουλη)? Has wisdom (σοφια) come to only you? (9)For what do you know that we don't know, or understand which we do not also? (10)Among us are the elders and the aged, even more advanced than your own father. (11)You have been chastened for but few of your sins; you have spoken haughtily and extravagantly.

    (15:12) What has your heart dared, or what have your eyes aimed at, (13)that you have vented your rage before the Lord and uttered such words from your mouth? (14)For who, being mortal, can be blameless? Or who, born of woman, can be righteous? (15)If He doesn't have faith in His holy ones, and heaven is not pure before Him, (16)Alas then, how abominable and filthy man must be, who drinks iniquity like water.

    (15:17) Now I will tell you, listen to me: I will tell you what I have seen, things wise men say and their fathers have not hidden. (19)To them alone the earth was given, and no other race came upon them. (20)All the life of the ungodly is spent in anxiety, and the years granted to the oppressor are numbered. (21)His fear is in his ears; when he seems to be at peace his destruction will come. (22)He shouldn't believe he will be freed from darkness, for he is already doomed to the edge of the sword, (23)and has been destined as food for vultures; and he knows within himself that he is doomed to be a carcass; and a dark day will carry him away as a whirlwind. (24)Distress and anguish shall come upon him; he shall fall as a soldier in the front line. (25)For he has lifted his hands before the Lord and has proudly raised his neck against the Almighty Lord. (26)And he has run against him insolently with the thickness of his shield. (27)For he has covered his face with fat and added layers of fat to his thighs. (28)Let him lodge in deserted cities, and enter into uninhabited houses; what they have prepared others shall carry away.

    (15:29) Neither shall he grow rich, nor shall his substance remain; he won't cast a shadow on the earth. (30)Neither shall he escape the darkness; let the wind blast his bud and his blossom fall early. (31)Let him not think he will endure; for his end shall be vanity. (32)His harvest shall perish before its time, and his branch shall not flourish. (33)Let him be gathered before his time, and fall like the olive blossom. (34)Death is the witness of an ungodly man, and fire shall burn the houses of them that receive gifts. (35)He shall conceive sorrows and his end will be in vain, and his belly will produce deceit.

 

(JOB'S REPLY TO ELIPHAZ)

    (16:1) Job answered, saying: (2)I've heard many such things, bad comforters, you all! (3)What? is there any order in windy words? Or what will hinder you from answering? (4)I could also speak as you do, but were your soul in my soul's stead, (5)would I insult you with words and shake my head at you? (6)And should there be strength in my mouth, would I not spare the moving of my lips? (7) For if I speak, shall I not bemoan the wound? And if I stay silent, shall I be wounded the less? (8) But now he has made me weary, and a worn-out fool; and you have indeed fallen upon me. (9)My fašade (ψεΰδός/pseudos = false/false-front: in this case Job's physical nature) has become my witness and has risen up against me; it has confronted me to my face.

    (16:10) In His anger He has cast me down; He has gnashed his teeth upon me: the weapons of His robbers have assaulted me. (11)He pierced me with darting eyes; He struck me sharp to the knees; they have attacked me together. (12) The Lord has given me into the hands of the unrighteous, thrown me unto the wicked. (13)When I was at peace He distracted me; He took me by the hair of the head, and plucked it out; He set me up as a target.

    (16:14)They (3 natures of physical, emotions, and intellect attack the spiritual nature) surrounded me with spears, aiming at my kidneys; without sparing me they poured out my gall upon the ground. (15)They overthrew me with fall upon fall; they ran upon me in might. (16)They sewed sackcloth upon my skin, and my strength has been spent on the ground. (17)My belly has been parched with wailing, and darkness is on my eyelids. (18)Yet there was no injustice in my hands, and my prayer is pure.

    (16:19) O earth, cover not over the blood of my flesh, nor let there be a place for this cry of mine. (20)And now, behold, my witness is in heaven, and my advocate is on high. (21)Let my pleading come to the Lord, and let mine eye weep before Him. (22)O that a man might plead before the Lord, even as a son of man with his neighbor. (23)But my years are numbered and come, and I shall go the way by which I shall not return.

 

    (17:1) I perish, carried away by wind, I seek burial but do not obtain it. (2)Weary, I am pleading; but what have I done? Strangers have stolen my goods. (3)Who is it? Let him join hands with me in this trial. (4)For Thou hast hid their heart from rightmindedness; therefore Thou shouldst not exalt them. (5)They provide mischief to companions, but their eyes melt for their own sons. (6)But Thou hast made me a byword among nations, and I am become a scorn to them. (7)For my eyes are dimmed through pain; I have been grievously beset by all. (8)Wonder has seized men-of-truth at this; let the just rise up against the transgressor! (9) Let him of faith hold his way, and let him with clean hands take courage. (10)However, you should act more from strength, for I don't find truth in you.

    (17:11) My days are passed in groaning; my heart strings are broken. (12)I've turned night into day; the light is short because of darkness. (13)If I remain, Hades is my home, my bed is made in darkness. (14)I have called on death to be my father, and corruption to be my mother and sister. (15)Where then is yet my hope, or where shall I see my good things? (16)Will they go down to Hades with me; shall we go down together to the tomb?

 

(BALDAD: (Emotional Nature) RETORT)

    (18:1) Then Baldad the Sauchite said, (2)How long will you continue? Forbear that we may speak. (3)Why have we been silent before you like animals? (4)Anger has consumed you; so what if you die? Will the earth under heaven be uninhabited? Will mountains be overthrown from their foundations?

    (18:5) The light of the wicked shall indeed be quenched, and their flame shall not ascend. (6)His light will be darkness in his habitation and his lamp put out with him. (7)Let the meanest of men spoil his goods, and let his counsel (βουλη) deceive him. (8)His foot also has been caught in a snare; let it be entangled in a net. (9)Getting caught in snares will strengthen those who thirst for his destruction. (10)That which shall take him is hidden in the earth, and a trap by the path. (11)Let pains destroy him round his foot, and let many come against him distressing him with hunger. (12)A signal destruction has been prepared for him. (13)Let the toes of his feet be devoured; and death shall consume his beauty. (14)Let health be utterly banished from his dwelling and distress seize him with the authority of a king. (15)Dwelling in his tabernacle in the night, his lordship will be strewed with brimstone. (16)His roots shall be dried up from beneath, and his crop above will fail. (17)Let his memorial perish from the earth, and his name publicly cast out. (18)Let one drive him from light into darkness. (19)He shall not be known among his people, nor his house preserved on the earth. (20)But strangers shall dwell in his possessions: the last groaning for him and wonder seizing the first. (21)Such are the houses of the unrighteous, and this is the place of them that know not the Lord.

 

(JOB'S REPLY TO BALDAD)

(19:1) Then Job answered, saying, (2)How long will you torment my soul and destroy me with words? Only know that the Lord has dealt with me thus. (3)You speak against me; you do not feel for me, but bear hard upon me. (4)Yes, I have strayed in truth, but the error abides with myself for speaking words not right to speak; my words err and are unseasonable. (5)But, alas, for you magnify yourselves against me, and insult me with reproach. (6)Know this, that it is the Lord Who has troubled me and raised his bulwark against me. (7)Look, I laugh at reproach; I will not speak; I will cry out, but judgment is nowhere. (8)I am fenced round about and cannot escape. He has set darkness before my face. (9)He has stripped me of my glory and taken the crown from my head. (10) He has torn me round about, and I am gone; He has cut down my hope like a tree. (11)And he has handled me dreadfully in anger, and counted me for an enemy. (12)His troops came upon me with one accord, lying in wait they compassed my ways.

    (19:13) My brethren stood aloof from me; they acknowledged strangers rather than me; my friends have become pitiless. (14)My nearest kin have not acknowledged me, and they who knew my name have forgotten me. (15)I was a stranger before my neighbors and my maid-servants. (16)I called my servant, and he hearkened not; so my mouth intreated him. (17)When I sought my wife, and earnestly intreated the sons of my concubines, (18)they renounced me forever; whenever I stand up they speak against me. (19)Those who saw me abhorred me; those whom I loved rose up against me. (20)My flesh is rotting under my skin; my bones are held in my teeth. (21)Pity me, pity me, O friends; for it is the hand of the Lord that has touched me. (22)Why do you persecute me as also the Lord does, and are not satisfied with my flesh?

    (19:23) Oh that my words were written and recorded in a book forever (24)with an iron pen and lead, or graven in the rocks! (25)For I know that He is eternal Who is about to deliver me, (26)to raise up on the earth my body which endures these sufferings; for these things have been accomplished to me of the Lord; (27)of Whom I am conscious in myself, which mine eye has seen and none other, but all have been fulfilled to me in my bosom. (28)Now if you will say, What shall we say against him to find the root of the matter in him? (29)Do also beware of deceit; for wrath will come upon transgressors; and then it shall be known where their motivation is.

 

(SOPHAR: (Intellect Nature) RETORT)

    (20:1) Then Sophar the Minaian spoke, saying: (2)I did not suppose you would answer like that, nor do you understand more than I. (3)I hear this shameful rebuke and the spirit of understanding (συνεσις) answers me.

    (20:4) Have you known these things of old, from the time that man was set upon the earth? (5)The mirth of the ungodly is sudden ruin, and the joy of transgressors is destruction; (6)even though his gifts should go up to heaven and his sacrifice reach the clouds. (7)For when he shall seem to be established, then he shall utterly perish; and they that knew him shall say, Where is he? (8)Like a dream which has fled away, he shall not be found; he has fled like a vision of the night. (9)The eye has looked upon him, but shall not see him again; and his place shall no longer perceive him. (10)Let his inferiors destroy his children, and let his hands kindle the fire of sorrow. (11)His bones were filled with his youth, and shall lie down with him in the dust.

    (20:12) Though evil be sweet in his mouth, he will hide it under his tongue, (13)though he will not spare it or forsake it, but will keep it in his mouth; (14)he won't be able to help himself; the poison of an asp is in his belly.

    (20:15) Wealth unjustly collected shall be vomited up; an angel of wrath shall drag him out of his house. (16)May he suck the venom of serpents, and may serpent's tongues slay him. (17)May he not see the milking of the pastures, nor the supplies of honey and butter. (18)He has labored unprofitably and in vain for wealth which he shall not taste; it is lean and unfit for food which he cannot swallow. (19)For he has plundered and broken down houses of many mighty men, which he did not build. (20)There is no security for his possessions; he shall not be saved by his desires. (21)There is nothing remaining of his provisions; therefore his goods shall not flourish. (22)When he shall seem to be satisfied, he shall be afflicted; and all manner of distress shall come upon him. (23)If by any means he would fill his belly, may God send upon him the fury of wrath; may He bring a torrent of pains upon him. (24)And he shall by no means escape the edge of the sword; may the brazen bow wound him. (25)And may the arrow pierce through his body; and may the stars be against his dwelling-place; may terrors come upon him. (26)And may all darkness wait for him: a fire that burns not out shall consume him; and may a stranger plague his house. (27)May heaven reveal his iniquities, and the earth rise up against him. (28)May destruction bring his house to an end; may a day of wrath come upon him. (29)This is the portion for an ungodly man from the Lord, and this his possession from the all-seeing God. 

 

(JOB'S REPLY TO SOPHAR)

    (21:1) Job answered, saying, (2)Hear, hear my words, in order that I may have this consolation from you. (3)Bear with me, and I will speak; then you won't laugh me to scorn. (4)What! is my argument with a man? And why shouldn't I be angry? (5)Look upon me, and be amazed, laying your hand against your cheek!

    (21:6) Whenever I remember, I shudder and pains rack my flesh. (7)Why do the wicked live and grow old, abounding in wealth? (8)Their seed-crops are according to their wishes, and their children are before their eyes. (9)Their houses are prosperous, neither have they any cause to fear; and there is no scourge from the Lord upon them. (10)Their cow does not cast her calf; her young are safe and she doesn't miscarry. (11)They abide as sheep to ages, and their children play before them with the psaltery and the harp, (12)being charmed with the sound of song. (13)They spend their days in wealth, to rest in a peaceful grave. (14)Yet such men say to the Lord, Depart from me, I don't want to know Thy ways. (15)What is the Almighty that we should serve Him, and what profit is there that we should approach Him?

    (21:16) Good things were in their hands, but He doesn't observe the works of the wicked. (17)Nevertheless, the lamp of the wicked shall also be put out, and destruction come upon them, and pangs shall seize them, from His anger. (18)And they shall be as chaff before the wind, or as dust which the storm has taken up. (19)May his substance fail to supply his children; God shall recompense him, and he shall know it. (20)Let his eyes see his own destruction, and let him not escape from the Lord. (21)Because his desire is in his family with him, therefore the number of their months should be cut short.

    (21:22) Is it not the Lord who teaches understanding (συνεσις) and knowledge (επιστημη), and does He not judge murderers? (23)One shall die in perfect strength and wholly at ease and prosperous, (24)his innards full of fat and marrow. (25)Another dies in bitterness of soul, not eating any good thing. (26)But they lie down in the earth together where corruption covers them.

    (21:27) So, I know you, that you presumptuously attack me; (28)so that you will say, Where is the house of the Prince? and where is the covering of the tents of the wicked? (29)Ask those who travel the highways, and do not disown their monuments. (30)For the wicked hasten to the day of destruction; they shall be led away for the day of His vengeance. (31)Who will tell him his way to his face, and who shall recompense him? (32)Even when he has been led away to the tombs and caused a watch to be kept over the heaps. (33)The stones of the stream have been sweet to him, and every man shall depart after him, just as innumerable ones went before him. (34)How then do you comfort me with vanity? Whereas I have no relief from your molestation.

 

(ELIPHAZ: (Physical Nature) THIRD RESPONSE)

    (22:1) Then Eliphaz the Thaemanite answered, saying: (2)Is it not the Lord that teaches understanding (συνεσις) and knowledge (επιστημη)? (3)For what does it matter to the Lord if you were blameless in your works? or is it profitable that you should perfect your way? (4)Will you maintain and plead your own cause? and will He enter into judgment with you?

    (22:5) Is not your wickedness great and your sins innumerable? (5)And you have taken security of your brethren for nothing, and have taken clothing of the naked. (7)Neither have you given water to the thirsty to drink, but have taken away the morsel from the hungry. (8)You have respected some persons and established those on the earth. (9)But you have sent widows away empty, and have afflicted orphans. (10)Therefore snares have beset you, and disastrous war has troubled you. (11)The light has become darkness to you, and water has wetted you when asleep.

    (22:12) Doesn't He Who dwells in the high places observe? And hasn't He brought down the proud? (13)And you have said, What does the Almighty know? Does He judge in the dark? (14)A cloud is His hiding place, and He shall not be seen; and He travels the circle of heaven. (15)Won't you consider the old way which unrighteous men have trodden, who were taken before their time; their foundations were as an overflowing stream. (17)They said, What will the Lord do to us, or what will the Almighty bring upon us? (18)Yet He filled their houses with good things; but the counsel (βουλη) of the wicked is far from Him. (19)The righteous saw it and laughed, and the Blameless One has laughed them to scorn. (20)Verily, their substance is entirely destroyed; the fire shall destroy what is left of their substance.

    (22:21) Become firm; if you can endure then your fruit shall prosper. (22)Receive a declaration from His mouth, and lay up His words in your heart. (23)And if you shall turn and humble yourself before the Lord, you have thus removed your unrighteousness far from your habitation. (24)You shall lay up for yourself treasure in a heap on the rock; and Sophir will be the rock in the torrent. (25)Then will the Almighty be your helper from enemies, and He shall bring you forth pure as silver which has been tried by fire. (26)Then shall you have boldness before the Lord; and may look up to heaven with cheerfulness. (27)And He shall hear you when you pray to Him, and He shall enable you to pay your vows; (28)And He shall establish to you again a habitation of righteousness and there shall be light on your paths. (29)Because you have humbled yourself, you will say, Man has behaved arrogantly, but He will save him who has lowly eyes. (30)He shall save the innocent. Save yourself with your clean hands.

 

(JOB REPLIES TO ELIPHAZ)

    (23:1)Job answered, saying: (2)I know that pleading is out of my reach; and His hand is made heavy by my groaning. (3)Who knows how I might comprehend him, and come to an end of the matter? (4)I would plead my own cause, and He would fill my mouth with arguments. (5)And I would know the remedies which He would speak to me, and I would perceive what He would tell me. (6)Though He should come on me in great strength, He would not threaten me. (7)For truth and reproof are from Him; and He would bring forth my judgment to a conclusion. (8)But if I go first, and cease to exist, how can I know the conclusion? (9) When He performed on my left, I wouldn't see it; His right hand might encompass me, but I wouldn't see it. (10)He already knows my path, and has tried me like gold. (11)I will go forth as He commands, for I have kept His ways, and will not disdain His commands; (12)neither shall I transgress, for I have hid His words in my bosom.

    (23:13) But if He has judged, who can contradict Him? For He has done as He wished. (14)So I tremble at Him; upon reproof, I think of Him. (15)I will take good heed of Him; I will consider and be in dread of Him. (16)The Lord has softened my heart, but the Almighty troubles me. (17)For I didn't know that darkness would come upon me, and thick darkness be before my face.

 

    (24:1) But why have times escaped notice of the Lord, (2)when the wicked have transgressed all bounds and ravaged both the flock and the shepherd? (3)They have led away the donkey of the fatherless, and taken the widow's cow for surety. (4)They have turned aside the weak from the right way, and the meek of the earth have had to hide: (5) They have gone forth beyond me to their own order; His bread is sweet to His little ones.

    (24:6) They have reaped a field not their own before its time; the poor have labored in the vineyards of the wicked without pay and food. (7)They have caused many to sleep naked without clothes, having taken away the coverings of their body. (8)They are wet with dew of the mountains; they have embraced rocks because they have no shelter. (9)They have torn the orphan from the breast; and have oppressed the fallen. (10)And they have unjustly caused others to be naked; and robbed the hungry of their morsel. (11)They have wickedly laid wait in narrow places, and haven't know the righteous way. (12)Some are cast forth from their houses and their city, and the souls of the children have wailed.

    (24:13) Why hasn't He called these to account, as they were on earth but took no notice, not acknowledging the path of righteousness; neither did they stay on their own paths. (14)Having known their works He let them be in darkness; and in that night to act as a thief. (15)And the eye of the adulterer watches for the darkness, saying, no eye shall see me as he puts a covering over his face. (16)In darkness he plunders houses; and by day hides securely, avoiding the light. (17)Morning is to them like the shadow of death, being terrified of that shadow of death.(18)He floats over the face of the water; but his portion should be cursed on the earth, and his plants laid bare. (19)May they be withered on the earth; for they have plundered the sheaves of the fatherless.

    (24:20) Then would his sin be brought to remembrance, and he would vanish like a vapour of dew; let his deeds be recompensed to him, and let every wicked one be crushed like rotten wood.

    (24:21) For he has not treated the barren woman well, and has had no pity on a feeble woman. (22)In anger he overthrew the helpless; therefore when he stands up he shouldn't feel secure of his own life. (23)When he falls sick, let him not hope to recover; but let him perish by disease. (24)For his exaltation has hurt many, he should wither like mist in heat, or like an ear of corn falling from the stalk itself. (25)If this can't be, then who can say that I speak falsely; to mark my words as no account?

 

(BALDAD: (Emotional Nature) THIRD RESPONSE)

    (25:1) Then Baldad the Sauchean answered, saying: (2)Where is the beginning of fear for Him who made all things in the highest? (3)Let none think there is a respite for robbers; upon whom a snare will not come from Him. (4)How shall a mortal be righteous before the Lord, or who that is born of a woman can purify himself? (5)If He gives an order to the moon, then it shines not; even the stars are not pure in His sight. (6)Alas, man is corruption, and man's son a worm.

 

(JOB REPLIES TO BALDAD)

    (26:1) Job answered, saying: (2)To whom do you attach yourself, or whom will you assist? Is it not the one who has much strength and a strong arm? (3)Who is your counsellor (βουλη)? Is it not one with all wisdom (σοφια)? Whom will you follow? Is it not the one most powerful? (4)To whom have you uttered words? And whose breath is that comes forth from you?

    (26:5) Shall giants rise up from beneath water or places nearby? (6)Hades is naked before Him, and destruction is not hidden. (7)He stretches out the north wind upon nothing, and hangs the earth upon nothing. (8)He binds water in His clouds, and the cloud is not rent. (9)He keeps back the face of His throne, stretching His cloud over it. (10)He encompassed the face of the water with a law, defining the edge of light and darkness. (11)At His rebuke the pillars of heaven lay prostrate and astonished! (12)His force (Ίσχυϊ) calms the sea; His knowledge (επιστημη) overthrows the sea-monster. (13)The boundaries of heaven fear Him; by an utterance He slays the apostate dragon. (14)Behold, these are mere part of His way; and we will hearken to the tiniest part of His word. But, who knows when He will express the strength of His thunder?

 

    (27:1) Job continued further, saying in preface: (2)As God lives, He who has judged me; and the Almighty who has embittered my soul; (3)verily, while my breath is yet in me, and the Spirit of God which remains to me is in my nostrils, (4)my lips shall not speak lawlessness, nor my soul meditate unrighteousness. (5)Far be it from me to justify you, till I die, for I will not let go my innocence, (6)but keeping fast my righteousness, I shall not let it go: for I am not conscious of doing anything amiss. (7)No, rather let my enemies be as the overthrown of the wicked, and they who rise up against me as the destroyed transgressors.

    (27:8)For what is the hope of the wicked, that he might hold to it? Will he trust in the Lord and be saved? (9)Will God hear his prayer? or, when distress is come upon him, (10)has he any confidence before Him? or will God hear him as he calls upon Him?

    (27:11) But now, I will tell you what is in the hand of the Lord; I will not lie concerting things with the Almighty. (12)Look, you all know that you heap vanity on vanities, saying: (13)This is the portion of a wicked man from the Lord, and the power of oppression shall come upon them from the Almighty. (14)Even though they have many children, they shall be for slaughter; and if they grow up, they shall be beggars. (15)Those of his who survive shall utterly perish, and no one will pity their widows. (16)Even if he gather silver like dirt, and gold like clay; (17)all his things the righteous shall gain, then the true-hearted shall possess his wealth. (18)His house is gone like moths, and like a spider's web. (19)The rich man shall lie down and shall not continue; he will open his eyes and all will be gone. (20)Torments will come upon him like water, to be swept away in the darkness of night. (21)A burning wind shall take him away, utterly removing him from his place. (22)God shall cast trouble upon him, not sparing; he would long to flee from His hand. (23)He will cause men to clap their hands against him, and hiss him out of his place.

 

    (28:1) There is indeed a place from which silver is got; and a place where gold is refined. (2)Iron indeed comes out of the earth, and copper comes from a quarry like stone.

    (28:3) He has set a bound to darkness, and He searches out every limit: stones, darkness, even the shadow of death; (4)Streams get choked up with sand: so they forget the right way and are weakened; they disappear from among men. (5)For earth, from which comes bread; underneath it is something of fire. (6)Her stones are the place of the sapphire, and her dirt supplies man with gold. (7)There is a path, which the bird has not known, nor has the eye of the vulture seen it; neither have the sons of the proud trodden it; a lion has not passed upon it. (9)He has stretched forth His hand on the sharp rock, and turned up mountains by the roots: (10)He has broken the whirlpools of rivers, and His eye has seen every precious thing. (11)He has laid bare the depths of the rivers, and brought His power (δυναμις) to light.

    (28:12) But where has wisdom (σοφια) been discovered? And what is the place of knowledge (επιστημη)? (13)A mortal does not know its way; nor has it been discovered by men. (14)The abyss said, It is not in me: and the sea said, It is not with me. (15)One can't give fine gold for it; neither shall silver be weighed in exchange for it. (16)Neither shall it be compared with gold of Sophir, with the precious onyx and sapphire. (17)Gold and crystal shall not be equalled to it; neither can jewelry of gold be its exchange. (18)Coral and fine pearls shan't even be mentioned: but you should esteem wisdom (σοφια) above the most precious things. (19)The topaz of Ethiopia shall not be equalled to it; it shall not be compared with pure gold.

    (28:20) Where then is wisdom (σοφια) found? and of what kind is the place of understanding (συνεσις)? (21)It has escaped the notice of every man, and has been hidden from the birds of the sky. (22)Destruction and Death said, We have heard reports about it.

    (28:23) God has well ordered its path and knows its place. (24)For He surveys the whole earth under heaven, knowing the things in the earth; (25)all that He has made; the weight of the winds, the measures of the water. (25)When He made them, He saw and numbered them, and made a way for the pealing of the thunder. (27)Then He saw it and declared it; He prepared it and traced it out. (28)And He said to man, Behold, Godliness (θεοσέβειά) is Wisdom (σοφια); and to abstain from evil is knowledge (επιστημη).

   

    (29:1) Job continued: (2)O that I were back in days of months when God preserved me, (3)as when His lamp shined over my head; when by His light I walked through darkness; (4)when I was steadily making my way, when God took care of my house; (5)when I was very fruitful, and my children were about me; (6)when my ways were buttered, and the mountains poured forth milk for me; (7) When I walked early in the city, and a seat was placed for me in the street. (8)Young men saw me and hid themselves; old men stood up. (9)Great men ceased speaking, and laid their finger on their mouth. (10)And they who heard me blessed me; the tongue cleaved to the roof of their mouth. (11)The ear heard and blessed me; the eye saw and turned aside. (12)For I saved the poor out of the hand of the oppressor; and helped the orphan who had no helper. (13)The blessing of him who was perishing came upon me; yes, the mouth of the widow has blessed me. (14)I put on righteousness as a mantle. (15)I was the eye of the blind and the foot of the lame. (16)I was the father of the helpless; and I searched out unknown causes. (17)I broke the jaws of the wicked; and plucked their prey from betwixt their teeth.

    (29:18) I said, My age shall continue like the trunk of a palm-tree; I shall live a long while. My root was spread out by the water, and the dew would abide on my crop. (20)My glory was fresh in me, and my bow directed by His hand. (21)Those who heard me gave heed; and they were silent at my counsel (βουλη). (22)To my word they added nothing; they were glad to hear me. (23)As thirst earth receives rain, they did so my speech. (24)If I smiled on them, they could scarce believe it; and the light of my countenance was not lost. (25)I chose their path and sat as chief, and dwelt as a king among warriors, as one comforting the afflicted.

 

    (30:1) Now the youngest laugh me to scorn, taking turns reproving me, whose fathers I held in contempt; whom I didn't deem worthy as my shepherd dogs. (2)Yea, if I had the strength of their hands; it was wasted on them. (3)By reason of lack and famine it was useless, like those who lately fled the the distress and misery of drought. (4)They hang round the salt places, having sea-weed for food, being despicable and contemptible , lacking everything good; who also ate roots of trees for their hunger.

    (30:5) Thieves have risen up against me, (6)whose houses were caves of the rocks, who lived under wild shrubs. (7)They cry out from rustling bushes. (8)They are sons of fools and vile men, whose name and honor are extinguished from the earth. (9)Now I am their music, and their byword. (10)They stood aloof and abhorred me, and didn't hesitate to spit in my face. (11)For He has opened His quiver and afflicted me; so they cast off the restraint they were under in my presence. (12)At the right of their brood they have risen against me; they have stretched out their foot and directed the ways of destruction against me. (13)My paths are ruined; for I am stripped of my robe, he has assaulted me with his weapons. (14)He has argued against me as he willed; I am overwhelmed with pains. (15)My pains return upon me; my hope is gone like the wind, and my safety like a cloud.

    (30:16) Even now my life shall be poured forth from me; and days of anguish seize me (17)By night my bones are confounded; and my muscles limp. (18)With great force He took hold of my garment; and girded me like the collar of my coat. (19)And Thou hast counted me as clay; my portion is dust and ashes. (20)I have cried to Thee, but Thou hearest me not; But they stood and watched me. (21)They also attacked me without mercy; Thou hast scourged me with a strong hand. (22)Thou hast put me to grief, and hast cast me away from safety. (23)For I know that death will destroy me; for the earth is the house for mortals. (24)Oh how I wish I could lay violent hands upon myself, or at least ask another and he would do this for me. (25)Yet, I wept over every helpless man; I groaned when I saw a man in distress. (26)But, when I waited for good things, behold, days of evils came the more upon me.

    (30:27) My belly boiled and would not cease; the days of poverty plagued me. (28)I went mourning without comforting restraint; I have cried out in the assembly (εκκλησία). (29)I am become a brother to sirens, a companion of ostriches. (30)My skin has been greatly darkened, and my bones burned with heat. (31)My harp has been turned to mourning, and my song into weeping.

 

    (31:1) I made a covenant with mine eyes: I will not contemplate a maiden. (2)What portion has God given from above? And does the Almighty give an inheritance from on high? (3)Alas, destruction to the unrighteous and rejection to them who do iniquity. (4)Will He not see my path and number my steps? (5)Have I walked with scorners, or my foot hastened to deceit? (6)For I am weighed in a just balance, and the Lord knows my innocence: (7)if my foot has turned aside from the path, or if my heart has followed mine eye, and if I have touched bribes with my hands, (8)then let me sow and let others eat; let me be uprooted from the earth. (9)If my heart has gone after another man's wife, and if I laid wait at her doors; (10)then let my wife also please another, and let my children be brought low. (11)For the rage of anger is not to be restrained, after defiling another man's wife. (12)For it is a fire burning in all the limbs, and whomever it affects it utterly destroys.

    (31:13) If I have slighted the cause of my servant or handmaid, when they pleaded with me; (14)what shall I then do if the Lord try me? and if also He should at all visit me, can I make answer? (15)Were not they too formed as I was formed in the womb? Yes, we were formed alike in the belly.

    (31:16) Not depriving the helpless of whatever need they had, I also did not cause the eye of the widow to anguish; (17)nor did I eat my morsel alone without sharing it with an orphan; (18)for I nourished them as a father from my youth, and was their guide from babyhood. (19)Nor did I overlook the naked as he was suffering, without clothing him; (20)The poor have blessed me as their shoulders were warmed with the fleece of my lambs; (21)If I lifted my hand against an orphan, trusting my strength to be far greater than his; (22)then let my arm be crushed, starting from the shoulder-blade to the elbow. (23)The fear (φόβος) of the Lord constrained me from a burden I could not endure.

    (31:24) If I made gold my treasure, and trusted in precious stones; (25)and if too I rejoiced when wealth was abundant, and if too I laid my hand on innumerable treasures; (26)(we would see the shining sun eclipsed and the moon waning, for they couldn't continue): (27)and if my heart was secretly deceived, and if I laid my hand upon my mouth and kissed it: (28)let this also then be reckoned to me as the greatest iniquity; that I have lied against the Lord most High. (29)And if too I was glad at the fall of mine enemies, and mine heart said, Hah! (30)then let mine ear hear my curse, and let me be a byword among my people in my affliction.

    (31:31) My handmaids have never said, O that we might have some of his meat to eat! Whereas I was very kind; (32)Those who were different (ξένος) did not lodge outside; my door was opened to every one who came. (33)Or if too, having sinned unintentionally, I hid my sin; (34)(for I did not stand in awe of a great multitude, so as not to declare boldly before them) and if too, I permitted a poor man to go out of my door with an empty belly: (35)(Oh, that I had a hearer!) and if I had not feared the hand of the Lord; and as to a written charge which I had against anyone, (36)I would place it as a chaplet on my shoulders and read it. (37)I would read it and return it, having taken nothing from the debtor.

    (31:38) If at any time my land cried out against me, and if its furrows joined in complaint; (39)and if I ate its strength alone without compensating it, and if too, I grieved the heart of the owner of the soil by taking anything from him: (40)then let the nettle come up to me instead of wheat, and a bramble instead of barley. And Job ceased speaking.

 

(ELIUS SPEAKS)

    (32:1) And his three friends also ceased to answer Job any longer: for Job was righteous before them.

    (32:2) Then Elius, the son of Barachiel, the Buzite, of the kindred of Ram, of the country of Ausis, was angered: and he was very angry with Job, because he had justified himself before the Lord. (3)And he was also very angry with his three friends because they were not able to defeat Job's defence after they had charged him with being wicked.

    (32:4) Now, Elius had waited to speak to Job because the others were older than he. (5)But when Elius saw there was no answer in the mouth of the three men; he was fired with anger; (6)so Elius, the son of Barachiel the Buzite took up the argument, saying to Job:

    (32:7) I am younger in age, and you are older; so I kept silent, fearing (φόβηθεις) to express my own knowledge (επιστημη). (7)I said, it is not age which speaks, though, after many years men know wisdom (σοφιαν). But there is a Spirit in mortals; the breath of the Almighty which teaches.(9)Those who live long are not wisest, neither do the aged know judgment. (10)So, I say, hear me, and I will tell you what I know.

    (32:11) Listen attentive to my words; for I will speak in your hearing, that you may test the words; (12)if I understand (συνήσω) the same as you; and look, none of you refuted Job's words in argument, (13)so you can't say, We found that we have added wisdom (σοφιαν) to the Lord. (14)Alas, that a man should be permitted to speak such words! (15)They were daunted, answering not again; they gave up their words. (16)I waited, for I had not spoken, because they stood still and answered not. (17)Elius continued, saying, I will speak again, (18)for I am full of Words, for the Spirit in my belly is agitated. (19)My belly is like a skin of sweet wine tight and ready to burst; like a blacksmith's working bellows. (20)I will speak, that I may open my lips and have relief. (21)For I truly am not awed by man, nor will I be confounded before a mortal. (22)For I'm not a respecter of persons; if this wasn't so, even the moths would eat me.

 

    (33:1) Howbeit, hear, Job, my words, and listen to my speech. (2)Behold, I have opened my mouth and my tongue has spoken. (3)My heart shall be found pure by my words; and the understanding (συνεσις) of my lips shall be pure. (4)The Spirit of God formed me, and the breath of the Almighty teaches me. (5)If you can, give me an answer; come to trial and let us stand face to face. (6)You are formed out of the clay as also I; we have been formed out of the same substance. (7)Don't fear me or be terrified, neither shall my hand be heavy upon you.

    (33:8) You have said in my ears, (I've heard the sound of your words;) because you say, I am pure, having not sinned; (9)I am blameless, having not transgressed. (10)Yet He has discovered a charge against me, and He has reckoned me as an adversary. (11)He has put my foot in the stocks, and has watched all my ways. (12)Now, how do you say, I am righteous, yet He has not hearkened to me? For He that is above mortals is eternal.

    (33:13) But you say, Why has He not heard every word of my cause? (14)For when the Lord speaks once, or a second time, (15)sending a dream, or in the meditation of the night; (as when a dreadful fright happens to fall upon men in slumberings on the bed:) (16)then He opens the understanding of men: He scares them with such fearful visions (17)to turn a man from wickedness; He delivers a person from a fall. (18)He spares also his soul from death, and causes him to not fall in war.

    (33:19) Again, He chastens him with sickness on his bed, and benumbs many of his bones. (20)He won't be able to take any food, even though he wants meat to depths of his soul; (21)until his flesh is consumed and showing his bones, (22)his soul near death, and his life to Hades. (23)Though there should be a thousand angels of death, not one of them shall wound him: if he should purpose in his heart to turn to the Lord, and declare to man his fault and admit his folly, (24)then He will support him, that he should not perish, and will restore his body like fresh plaster on a wall; and He will fill his bones with marrow. (25)He will make his flesh tender as that of a baby, and will restore him among men in full strength. (26)And he shall pray to the Lord, and his prayer shall be accepted; he shall enter with a cheerful countenance, with a full expression of praise: for he will render to men their due. (27)Even then a man shall blame himself, saying, What kind of things have I done, and He has not punished me according to the full amount of my sins. (28)Deliver my soul, that it may not go to destruction, and my life shall see the light.

    (33:29) Behold, all these things the Almighty works in a threefold manner with a man. (30)And he has delivered my soul from death, that my life may praise Him in the light.

    (33:31) Hearken, Job, and hear me: be silent and I will speak. (32)If you have words, answer me: speak, for I desire you to be justified. (33)If not, listen to me; be silent and I will teach you.

 

    (34:1) Elius continued, saying: (2) Hear me you wise men; listen, you that have knowledge (επισταμενοι). (3)The ear tries words, and the mouth tastes meat. (4)Let us choose judgment to ourselves; let us know among ourselves what is right. (5)For Job has said, I am righteous; the Lord has removed me from judgment. (6)He has erred in my judgment; my wound is severe without transgression.

    (34:7) What man is like Job, drinking scorn like water? saying, I have not sinned nor committed wickedness, nor had fellowship with workers of iniquity, going with the ungodly. (9)You should not say, There won't be a visitation to a man; whereas there is a visitation on him from the Lord. (10)So, you wise in heart, hear me: Far be it from me to be profane before the Lord, and before the Almighty to pervert righteousness. (11)Yea, he renders to a man accordingly as each of them does, and He will find each man in his path.

    (34:12) Do you think the Lord will do wrongly, or will the Almighty who made the earth pervert judgment? (13)And who is he that made all that is under heaven and all things therein? (14)For if he would confine and restrain His Spirit within Himself, (15)all flesh would die together, and every mortal would return to the earth, from whence he was formed.

    (34:16) Take heed lest he rebuke you: hear this, hearken to the voice of words. (17)Behold then the One Who hates iniquities, and Who destroys the wicked, Who is forever just. (18)A man is ungodly who says to a king, You are a transgressor, who says to princes, O most wicked one. (19)Such a one as would not reverence the face of an honorable man, neither knows how to give honor to the great, so that their persons should be respected. (20)But it should be in vain for them to cry and to entreat a man, for they did unlawfully, turning aside the poor from their right. (21)For He surveys the works of men, and nothing of what they do has escaped Him. (22)Neither shall there be a place for the workers of iniquity to hide themselves. (23)For he will not lay upon a man any more than is right. (24)For the Lord looks down upon all men, Who comprehends unsearchable things, glorious also and excellent things without number. (25)Who discovers their works, and will bring night upon them, and they shall be brought low. (26)And he quite destroys the wicked, for they are seen before Him. (27)Because they turned aside from the law of God, and did not honor His ordinances, (28)so they brought before Him the cry of the needy; He will hear the cry of the poor. (29) When He shall give quiet, who will criticize? If He hides His face, who shall see Him? Whether it be done against a nation or against a man: (30)He makes a hypocrite man to be king because of the waywardness of the people.

    (34:31) There is one who says to the Almighty, I have taken: I pledge not to take again: (32)I will look beyond myself; show me my wickedness and I will not do so any more. (33)Will he take vengeance for it on you, if you put it behind you. You must choose, not I; and speak what you know. (34)The wise in heart shall say this, and a wise man listens to my word. (35)But Job has not spoken with understanding (συνεσις), his words are not uttered with knowledge (επιστημη). (36)Therefore, may Job learn: no longer make answer like the foolish; (37)that we add not to our sins; for iniquity will be reckoned against us if we speak many words before the Lord.

 

    (35:1) Elius continued, saying: (2)What is this that you think to be right? Who are you to say, I am righteous before the Lord? (3)Will you say, What can I do if I sin? (4) I will give answer to you and your three friends.

    (35:5) Look up to the sky and see; consider how high the clouds are above you. (6)If you have sinned, what can you do? and if also you have transgressed much, what action can you take? (7)Suppose you are righteous; what can you give Him? Or will He take anything from your hands? (8)Your wickedness may affect a man like yourself; and your righteousness a son of man. (9)Those of a multitude who are falsely accused will be ready to scream; they will call for help because of the arm of many. (10)And none say, where is the God Who made me, Who appoints the night watches; (11)Who distinguishes me from the four-footed animals of the earth and from the birds of the air? (12)There they shall scream, and no one will listen, even at abuse by bad men.

     (35:13) For the Lord (as you say) doesn't desire to look on improprieties, since He, the Almighty One (14)observes them who perform lawless deeds, then He should save me: Do plead before Him, if it is possible even now to beseech Him. (15)For He is not now regarding His wrath, nor has he noticed any severe trespass. (16)Yet Job vainly opens his mouth and loads words with folly.

 

    (36:1) Elius proceeded, saying: (2)Bear with me a little yet that I may teach you, for I have much to say. (3)Having brought my knowledge (επιστημη) from afar, and according to my works, (4)I will speak just things truly, and not unjust words with unfairness.

    (36:5) Know that the Lord will not cast off an innocent man, being mighty (δυνατος) in strength (ισχύϊ) of heart (καρδίας); (6)nor will He enliven the wicked, and He will give judgment to the poor. (7)He will not turn His eyes away from the righteous, but they will be kings on the throne; He will establish them in victory (νΐκος)  and they shall be exalted. (8)And those bound in fetters shall be held in cords of poverty; (9)He will show them their works and transgressions, whenever they get violent. (10)But He will hearken to the righteous, and has ordered them to turn from iniquity. (11)If they hearken and serve Him, they shall spend their days in prosperity, and their years in honor. (12)But He preserves not the ungodly; because they are not willing to know the Lord, and because they were disobedient when admonished.

    (36:13) The hypocritical in heart will get wrath; they will not cry because He bound them. (14)Let their souls die in youth, and their lives be wounded by messengers (of death?). (15)Because they afflicted the weak and feeble, He will support the cause of the meek. (16)Though the abyss from the mouth of an enemy, (17)the overflow of that from underneath, has deceived you; and your table which was full of fatness has fallen: yet the cause of the righteous shall not fail. (18)But there shall be wrath upon the wicked, because of the ungodly bribes which they gained for their iniquities.

    (36:19) Let not your mind willingly turn you aside from the petition of the feeble that are in distress, (20)And draw not forth all the mighty men by night, so the people should go up instead of them. (21)But take heed lest you do that which is wrong; for by such conduct you will save yourself from poverty.

    (36:22) Behold, the Almighty shall prevail by His strength, for who is powerful as He is? (23)And who can examine His works? Or who can say that He has done injustice? (24)Remember that His works are great beyond those which men have attempted. (25)Every man has seen for himself how many mortals are wounded. (26)Behold, the Almighty is multi (faceted?); and we can't know Him. The number of His years is endless. (27)The drops of rain are numbered by Him, and collected in a cloud. (28)The ancient heavens pour rain, and clouds overshadow the mortals. He fixed an instinct in animals; they know when to seek shelter. (29)At all these things, isn't your mind astonished, or your heart shaking in your body?

    (36:30) And if one understands the outspreadings of the clouds, or the measure of His tabernacle; Behold, with a clap of thunder He will expand over it. He has indeed covered the out-branchings of the sea! (31)For by His judgment of the people, He will give food to him who has strength (ισχυοντι). (32)In His hands He has hidden the light, and given orders concerning its encounter. (33)The Lord will declare to His friend that there is recompense for injustice.

 

    (37:1) And from all this, my heart is troubled, shaking out of place. (2)Hear the report from the angry wrath of the Lord; a serious consideration shall come out of His mouth. (3)All heaven is under His dominion, and His light upon the wings of the earth. (4)From Him will be a loud sound; He shall thunder with a proud voice. Might it not make men pass away for one to hear His voice? (5)The Almighty will thunder wonderfully, doing great things which we know not, (6)commanding snow to fall on earth, and stormy rain, and the thunder showers of His might. (7)He seals up the hand of every man, so that man may know his own weakness. (8)Wild animals come in under their covert, and rest in their lair. (9)Troubles issue forth from secret chambers, and cold from mountain tops. (10)From His breath the Almighty sends frost; and He directs the water as He pleases. (11)If a cloud obscures what is precious to Him, His light will disperse the cloud. (12)By His dominion, He can cause the encircling agents to perform their works; to whatever He commands them. (13)This has been appointed by Him on earth, whether for correction, or for His land, or if He finds a recipient for mercy.

    (37:14) Hearken to this, Job: stand still and be instructed regarding the power of the Lord. (15)We know that God has set His works, having made light out of darkness. (16)And He knows the distinguishing of the clouds, and the selected overthrows of the ungodly. (17)But your robe is warm and there is peace in the land. (18)You establish with Him the ancient forces which are as a fluid appearance. (19)So, teach me what shall we say to Him? and let us cease from saying much. (20)Have I no book or scribe available, in order to command man to silence?

    (37:21) But the Light is not visible to all, its splendor is in the ancient forces, like that of Him in the clouds. (22)From the north clouds shine like gold; in these great are the glory and honor of the Almighty, (23)and we don't find another like Him in strength (ισχύϊ). As for Him Who judges justly, don't you think that He listens? (24)Wherefore, men shall fear (φόβος) Him, and the wise in heart shall fear Him.

 

(ALMIGHTY GOD SPEAKS)

    (38:1) After Elius had ceased from speaking, the Lord spoke to Job through a great storm and clouds: (2)Who is this who hides counsel (βουλην) from me, and thinks to conceal it from me? (3)Gird up your loins like a man, and I will question you, and you answer Me. (4)Where were you when I founded the earth? tell me now, if you have understanding (συνεσιν). (5)Who set the measures of it, if you know. Or who stretched a line upon it? (6)On what are its pillars set? And who laid the keystone upon it? (7)When the stars were made, all my angels praised Me with a loud sound. (8)And I shut up the sea with gates when it rushed out, coming forth out of its mother's womb. (9)And I made a cloud its clothing, and swathed it in mist. (10)And I set bounds to it, surrounding it with bars and gates. (11)And I said to it, Hitherto you shall come, but you shall not go further, and your waves will be confined within you.

    (38:12) Or did I order the morning light in your time; and the morning star see its appointed place? (13)To lay hold of the earth's extremities, to shake the ungodly out of it? (14)Or did you take clay of the ground to form a living creature, and set man with the power of speech on the earth? (15)And have you removed light from the ungodly, and crushed the arm of the proud? (16)Or have you gone to the source of the sea, or walked in the tracks of the deep? (17)And do the gates of death open to you for fear (φόβοω)? And did the porters of Hades quake when they saw you? (18)And have you been instructed of the breadth of the whole earth under heaven? Tell Me now, what is the extent of it? (19)In what kind of land does light dwell? And of what kind is the place of darkness? (20)If you could bring me to their boundaries, and if you know (επιστασα) their paths; (21)Then I would know that you were born at that time, and the number of your years is great.

    (38:22) Have you gone to the treasuries of snow? Have you seen the treasuries of hail? (23)And is there a store of them, for you against the time of your enemies, for the day of wars and battle? (24)From where does the frost come? or from where the south wind dispersed over all that is under heaven? (25)Who prepared a course for violent rain and a path for tumults? (26)to rain upon land where is no man, the wilderness where there is not a man in it? so as to feed the untrodden and uninhabited, (27)and cause it to send forth a crop of green herbs? (28)Who is the rain's father? And who has generated the drops of dew? (29)Out of whose womb comes the ice? And who has produced the frost in the sky, (30)which descends like flowing water? Who has terrified the face of the ungodly?

    (38:31) Do you understand the band of Pleias, and have you opened the barrier of Orion? (32)Will you reveal Mazuroth in his season, and the evening star with his rays? Will you guide them? (33)Do you know the modes of the sky, or the events under heaven which happen in accord to them? (34)Will you call a cloud with your voice, and will it obey you with a violent shower of much rain? (35)Will you send lightnings, and they will go, saying to you, What do you wish? (36)And who has given women skill in weaving?, or knowledge (επιστημη) of embroidery? (37)Who is it that numbers the clouds in wisdom (σοφια), and has bowed the sky down to the earth, (38)when the earth was spread like dust, and when I have cemented the clods as stone? (39)And will you hunt a prey for the lions? or satisfy the appetites of serpents? (40)For they are trembling in their lairs, and lying in ambush in their coverts. (41)Who has prepared food for the raven? for its young ones wander and cry to the Lord in search of food.

 

    (39:1) Do you know the time of delivery of the wild goats of the rock, and have you marked the calving of the hinds? (2)And have you numbered the full months of their being with young, and have you relieved their pangs? (3)Have you reared their young without fear (φόβου)? and will you dismiss their pangs? (4)Their young will break forth; they will be multiplied with offspring; or shall they go forth and not return to them?

    (39:5) And who sent forth the wild ass free? who loosed his bands? (6)Whereas I made his habitation the wilderness and the salt land his coverts, (7)he laughs to scorn the multitude of the city and hears not the chiding of the tax-collectors. (8)He surveys the mountains as his pasture, and seeks after every green thing.

    (39:9) Will the single-horned beast (Rhino) condescend to serve you, or lie down at your manger? (10)Will you bind his yoke with ropes, or will he plow furrows for you in the plain? (11)Can you trust him, because his strength is so great, and will you commit labors to him? (12)Will you believe that he will return your seed to you, and bring it to the threshing floor?

    (39:13) The peacock has a beautiful tail; Is the ostrich like the stork when she conceives? (14)for she will lay her eggs in the ground and hatch them in the dirt, (15)forgetting that the foot will scatter them, and animals will trample them. (16)She hardened herself against her young, as if not hers; she spends her labor without fear. (17)For God has withheld wisdom (σοφια) from her, not giving her a portion in understanding (συνεσει). (18)In her season she will lift herself high; she will scorn the horse and his rider.

    (39:19) Have you invested the horse with strength, and clothed his neck with terror? (20)And have you clad him in perfect armour, and made his breast glorious with courage? (21)He paws exulting in the plain, and goes forth in strength into the plain. (22)He laughs to scorn a king as he meets him, and will by no means turn back from the sword. (23)The bow and sword resound against him, and his rage will swallow up the ground; (24)nor will he believe until the trumpet sounds. (25)And when the trumpet sounds, he says, Aha! and afar off sniffs the war with prancing and neighing.

    (39:26) And does the hawk remain steady aloft by knowledge (επιστημη), spreading out her wings unmoving, looking toward the region of the south? (27)And does the eagle rise at your command, and the vulture remain sitting over his nest (28)on a crag of rock in a secret place? (29)From there he seeks food; his eyes observe from far. (30)His young ones roll themselves in blood, and wherever the carcasses may be, immediately they are found.

    (39:31) The Lord God answered Job, saying: (32)Will anyone pervert judgment with the Almighty One? And he who reproves God, let him return for answer.

    (39:33) Job answered, saying to the Lord, (34)Why do I yet plead? being rebuked even while reproving the Lord; hearing such things, whereas I am nothing; and what shall I answer to these arguments? I will lay my hand upon my mouth. (36)I have spoken once; but I will not do so a second time.

 

    (40:1) The Lord again answered, speaking to Job out of the cloud: (2)Nay, gird up your loins now like a man; I will ask you, and you answer me. (3)Do not set aside my judgment; and do not think I have dealt with you in any other way, than that you might appear righteous. (4)Have you an arm like the Lord's? Or do you thunder with a voice like His? (5)Assume now a lofty bearing and power; and clothe yourself with glory and honor. (6)Send forth messengers with wrath, and lay low every haughty one. (7)Bring down also the proud man; and consume at once the ungodly. (8)Hide them together in the earth; and fill their faces with shame. (9)I will declare that your right hand can save.

 

            (GOD DESCRIBES HIS NEGATIVE COUNTERPART FORCE, FORMED IN GOD'S MIND FOR SAKE OF THE PAGEANT; A FORCE DESCRIBED IN SYMBOLIC IMAGERY)

    (40:10)But now look at the wild animals with you; they eat grass like oxen. (11)But behold the one whose strength (ισχυος) is in his loins and his power (δυναμις) is in the navel of his belly. (12)He raises his tail like a cypress; his nerves are plaited together. (13)His ribs are like brass, and backbone like cast iron. (14)This the chief thing formed of the Lord; made to be mocked by His angels only. (15)When he has gone up to a high mountain, that gives joy to the animals in the valley. (16)He lies under trees of every kind, by the papyrus, the reed, and the bulrush. (17)The great trees make a shadow over him with their branches, as do the willow bushes. (18)If there should be a flood, he will not notice it; he trusts that Jordan could roll into his mouth. (19)Shall one take him in his sight; shall one catch him with a rope, and pierce his nose?

    (40:20) But will you catch a dragon with a hook, and put a halter around his nose? (21)Or will you fasten a ring in his snout, and bore his lip for a jewel? (22)Will he petition you softly, with the voice of a supplicant? (23)Will he make a covenant with you? And will you take him for a perpetual servant? (24)Will you play with him as with a bird? or bind him as a sparrow for a child? (25)Do the nations feed upon him, and the nations of the Phoenicians market him? (26)All the ships together would not be able to bear the skin of his tail; nor could they carry his head in fishing boats. (27)But should you lay your hand upon him, remembering the war that is waged by his mouth; you won't do so again.

 

    (41:1) Have you not seen him, and have you not been amazed at what is said of him? Do you not fear because he was prepared against Me? For who is there to resist me? (2)Or who will resist me and abide, since the whole world under heaven is Mine? (3)I will not be silent because of him; though because of his power one shall pity his opponent. (4)Who will open the face of his garment, or enter within the fold of his breastplate? (5)Who will open the door of his face? terror is round about his teeth. (6)His inwards are as brazen plates, and the texture of his skin as smyrite stone. (7)One part cleaves fast to another, and the air cannot come between them. (8)They remain united each to the other; they are closely joined, and cannot be separated. (9)At his sneezing a light shines, and his eyes are as the appearance of the morning star (sun?). (10)Out of his mouth comes burning as of lamps, and as hearths of fire being cast outward. (11)Out of his nostrils comes smoke of a furnace burning with fire of coals. (12)His soul (mind?) is like burning coals, and a flame goes out of his mouth. (13)Power (δυναμις) is lodged in his neck; destruction runs before him. (14)The flesh of his body is joined together that assault upon him will not move him. (15)His heart is firm as stone and stands like an anvil. (16)When he moves it terrifies the animals which leap upon the earth. (17)Spears coming against him have no effect, on either spear or breastplate. (18)He considers iron as chaff, and brass as rotten wood. (19)The bow of brass shall not wound him; he deems a slinger of stones as grass. (20)Mauls are counted as stubble; he laughs to scorn the waving of the firebrand. (21)His bed is of sharp points; and the gold of the sea under him is just dirt. (22)He makes the deep boil like a brazen cauldron; he regards the sea as a pot of ointment, (23)and the lowest part of the deep as a captive; he reckons the deep as his range. (24)There is nothing on the earth like him, formed to be mocked by My angels. (25)He beholds every high thing; he is king of all that are in the waters.

 

(JOB RESPONDS TO GOD)

    (42:1) Then Job answered and said to the Lord: (2)I know Thou canst do all things and nothing is impossible with Thee. (3)For who is he to hide counsel from Thee? Or who keeps back his words and thinks to hide them from Thee? And who will tell me what I knew not, great and wonderful things which I knew (επιστημη) not?

    (42:4) But hear me, O Lord, that I may speak; let me ask and you teach me. (5)I have heard the report of Thee by ear before; but now mine eye has seen Thee. (6)Wherefore I have counted myself vile, and have fainted; and I esteem myself dust and ashes.

 

    (42:7) It came to pass after the Lord had spoken all these things to Job, that the Lord said to Eliphaz the Thaemanite: You have sinned, along with your two friends; for you have not said anything true before Me, as My servant Job has. (8)Now, take seven bullocks and seven rams, and go to my servant Job, and he shall offer a burnt-offering for you. And my servant Job shall pray for you, for I will accept only him. But for his sake, I would have destroyed you, for you have not spoken the truth against my servant Job.

    (42:9) So, Eliphaz the Thaemanite and Baldad the Sauchite, and Sophar the Minaean, went and did as the Lord commanded them; and He pardoned their sin for the sake of Job.

    (42:10) And the Lord prospered Job; and when he prayed also for his friends, He forgave them their sin; and the Lord gave Job twice as much, even double what he had before. (11)His brothers and sisters heard all that had happened to him, and they came to him, and so did all that had known him from the first; and they ate and drank with him, and comforted him, and were astonished at all the Lord had brought upon him; and each one gave him a lamb and four drachms' weight of gold, even unstamped.

    (42:12) And the Lord blessed the latter end of Job more than the beginning; and his cattle were fourteen thousand sheep, six thousand camels, a thousand yoke of oxen, a thousand she-asses of the pastures. (13)And there were born to him seven sons and three daughters. (14)And he called the first (daughter), Day, and the second Casia (Cinnamon) , and the third, Amalthaea's Horn (Horn of Plenty). (15)There were not found any women fairer in comparison with the daughters of Job, in all the world; and their father gave them an inheritance along with their brothers.

    (42:16) And Job lived after his affliction a hundred and seventy years; all the years of his life were two hundred and forty; and Job saw his sons and his son's sons to the fourth generation. (17)Job died an old man and full of days; and it is written that he will rise again with those whom the Lord resurrects.

 

 



 

 

Wisdom (σοφια)

Power  (δυναμις)

Will (βουλη)

Understanding (συνεσις)

Dominion (κράτος)

Strength/force (ισχυος)

Knowledge (επιστημη)

Fear (φόβος)

Godliness  (θεοσέβειά)

 

ENDNOTE:

       The book just prior to Job is the book of Esther, a secular story which happened in Persia/Iran, about 200 miles east of Babylon, to Israelites who never saw Jerusalem before or after the incident.  The Esther book contains a postscript written many years after the event described in it. The last paragraph of the Esther postscript mentions the reign of Ptolemy and Cleopatra. A quick look at the Esther postscript (chapter 10 in the Greek LXX, following the third verse), which is not carried into the English Bible versions, shows us that it was added to make the book, and an annual festival, something of far greater importance than it was at the time of Esther about 473BC. The lengthy postscript describes a tax which the king levied on his kingdom, and describes Mordechai as a great viceroy to king Artaxerxes. Also, Mordechai relates a dream which he had about the Esther story. The postscript also says "Therefore did God ordain two lots (inheritances), one for the people of God, and one for all the other nations."  It is the Hebrew word for "lots" that is translated into English as Purim, and is celebrated as an annual Jewish festival still today. The importance of this postscript is the mention of Ptolemy and Cleopatra, and a Lysimachus who was a son of Ptolemy. So, this Cleopatra would be the second of 7 Cleopatras, not the one loved by Antony and Julius Caesar, but one who was married in 175BC to her brother, Ptolemy VI. It was sometime after that date when the postscript was added to Esther.

        Hence, it might be around the same time that the postscript was added to Job. Such additions were an arrogance never seen at any other time in history. Commentaries or margin notes are quite a different thing. It appears that someone was adding his own spin and perhaps even propaganda to these books. The postscript added to the book of Job, following 42:17, reads as follows:

"This man is described in the Syriac book as living in the land of Ausitidi (Ausis in LXX), on the borders of Idumea and Arabia: and his name before was Jobab; and having taken an Arabian wife, he begot a son whose name was Ennon. And he himself was the son of his father Zare, one of the sons of Esau, and of his mother, Bosorrha, so that he was the fifth from Abraam. And these were the kings who reigned in Edom, which country he also ruled over: first, Balac, the son of Beor, and the name of his city was Dennaba: but after Balac, Jobab, who is called Job: and after him Asom, who was governor out of the country of Thaeman: and after him Adad, the son of Barad, who destroyed Madiam in the plain of Moab; and the name of his city was Gethaim. And his friends who came to him were Eliphaz, of the children of Esau, king of the Taemanites, Baldad sovereign of the Sauchaeans, Sophar king of the Minaeans."

        The postscript is claiming Job to be the same as Jobab, a king of Edom. However, the story of Job does not say he became a king. Furthermore, the length of Job's life was far from the norm at the time in history described in the postscript, which would be about 1500BC. Esau was born 1936BC, and the postscript lists several generations that passed before Jobab. The period of history when men had lived several hundred years was long past. The 120 years of Moses was longer than the norm of that time. It had been many centuries since anyone had lived as long as the 240 year life of Job. So, it is most likely that Job was NOT that Jobab of the Edomite race, which was a continuation of the Cain race, the eternal enemy of Israel and of Christ, to this very day. Once one knows the significance of the four Natures of God presented in this story, and that ONLY the Israelite race possesses the Spiritual Nature which Job represents, then it is obvious that one of Christ's Edomite enemies could never represent the Spiritual Nature of the God of Israel. Who else but a lying Edomite could be responsible for the postscript additions to the books of Esther and of Job? It is the Edomite Jews who still today celebrate the festival of Purim which was the subject of the Esther postscript.